Ever hear of the Fourth Turning theory?


William Strauss and Neil Howe’s partnership began in the late 1980s when they began writing their first book Generations, which discusses the history of the United States as a succession of generational biographies. Each had written on generational topics: Strauss on Baby Boomers and the Vietnam War draft, and Howe on the G.I. Generation and federal entitlement programs.[18] Strauss co-wrote two books with Lawrence Baskir about how the Vietnam War affected the Baby Boomers (Chance and Circumstance: The Draft the War and The Vietnam Generation (1978) and Reconciliation after Vietnam (1977)). Neil Howe studied what he believed to be the US’s entitlement attitude of the 1980s and co-authored On Borrowed Time: How America’s entitlement ego puts America’s future at risk of Bankruptcy in 1988 with Peter George Peterson.[19] The authors’ interest in generations as a broader topic emerged after they met in Washington, D.C., and began discussing the connections between each of their previous works.[20]

They wondered why Boomers and G.I.s had developed such different ways of looking at the world, and what it was about these generations’ experiences growing up that prompted their different outlooks. They also wondered whether any previous generations had acted along similar lines, and their research discussed historical analogues to the current generations. They ultimately described a recurring pattern in Anglo-American history of four generational types, each with a distinct collective persona, and a corresponding cycle of four different types of era, each with a distinct mood. The groundwork for this theory was laid out in Generations in 1991. Strauss and Howe expanded on their theory and updated the terminology in The Fourth Turning in 1997.[18][21] Generations helped popularize the idea that people in a particular age group tend to share a distinct set of beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors because they all grow up and come of age during a particular period in history.[8]

In Generations (1991) and The Fourth Turning (1997), they discussed the generation gap between Baby Boomers and their parents and predicted there would be no such gap between Millennials and their elders. In 2000, they published Millennials Rising. A 2000 New York Times book review for this book titled: What’s the Matter With Kids Today? Not a Thing, described the message of Millennials Rising as “we boomers are raising a cohort of kids who are smarter, more industrious and better behaved than any generation before”, saying the book complimented the Baby Boomer cohort by complimenting their parenting skills.[22][23][24]

In the mid-1990s, the authors began receiving inquiries about how their research could be applied to strategic problems in organizations. They established themselves as pioneers in a growing field, and started speaking frequently about their work at events and conferences.[8] In 1999, they founded LifeCourse Associates, a publishing, speaking and consulting company built on their generational theory. As LifeCourse partners, they have offered keynote speeches, consulting services, and customized communications to corporate, nonprofit, government, and education clients. They have also written six books in which they assert that the Millennial Generation is transforming various sectors, including schools, colleges, entertainment, and the workplace.[promotional language]

On December 18, 2007, William Strauss died at the age of 60 from pancreatic cancer.[25] Neil Howe continues to expand LifeCourse Associates and to write books and articles on a variety of generational topics. Each year Mr. Howe gives about 60 speeches, often followed by customized workshops, at colleges, elementary schools, and corporations.[8] Neil Howe is a public policy adviser to the Blackstone Group, senior adviser to the Concord Coalition, and senior associate to the Center for Strategic and International Studies.[26]

Steve Bannon, former Chief Strategist and Senior Counselor to President Trump is a prominent proponent of the theory. As a documentary filmmaker, Bannon discussed the details of Strauss–Howe generational theory in Generation Zero. According to historian David Kaiser, who was consulted for the film, Generation Zero “focused on the key aspect of their theory, the idea that every 80 years American history has been marked by a crisis, or ‘fourth turning’, that destroyed an old order and created a new one”. Kaiser said Bannon is “very familiar with Strauss and Howe’s theory of crisis, and has been thinking about how to use it to achieve particular goals for quite a while.”[27][28][29] A February 2017 article from Business Insider titled: “Steve Bannon’s obsession with a dark theory of history should be worrisome”, commented: “Bannon seems to be trying to bring about the ‘Fourth Turning’.”[30]


Strauss and Howe’s theory provided historical information regarding living and past generations and made various predictions. Many of their predictions were regarding the Millennial Generation, who were young children when they began their work, thus lacking significant historical data. In their first book Generations (1991), Strauss and Howe describe the history of the US as a succession of Anglo-American generational biographies from 1584 to the present, and they describe a theorized recurring generational cycle in American history. The authors posit a pattern of four repeating phases, generational types and a recurring cycle of spiritual awakenings and secular crises, from the founding colonials of America through the present day.[1][31]

Strauss and Howe followed in 1993 with their second book 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?, which was published while Gen Xers were young adults. The book examines the generation born between 1961 and 1981, “Gen-Xers” (which they called “13ers”, describing them as the thirteenth generation since the US became a nation). The book asserts that 13ers’ location in history as under-protected children during the Consciousness Revolution explains their pragmatic attitude. They describe Gen Xers as growing up during a time when society was less focused on children and more focused on adults and their self-actualization.[32][33][31]

In 1997, the authors published The Fourth Turning: An American Prophecy, which expanded on the ideas presented in Generations and extended their cycles back into the early 15th century. The authors began the use of more colorful names for generational archetypes – e.g. “Civics” became “Heroes” (which they applied to the Millennial Generation), “Adaptives” became “Artists” – and of the terms “Turning” and “Saeculum” for the generational cycles. The title is a reference to what their first book called a Crisis period, which they expected to recur soon after the turn of the millennium.[2]

In 2000, the two authors published Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. This work discussed the personality of the Millennial Generation, whose oldest members were described as the high school graduating class of the year 2000. In this 2000 book, Strauss and Howe asserted that Millennial teens and young adults were recasting the image of youth from “downbeat and alienated to upbeat and engaged”. They credited increased parental attention and protection for these positive changes. They asserted Millennials are held to higher standards than adults apply to themselves and that they are a lot less vulgar and violent than the teen culture older people produce for them. They described them as less sexually charged and as ushering in a new sexual modesty, with an increasing belief that sex should be saved for marriage and a return to conservative family values. They predicted that over the following decade, Millennials would transform what it means to be young. According to the authors, Millennials could emerge as the next “Great Generation”. The book was described as an optimistic, feel-good book for the parents of the Millennial Generation, predominantly the Baby Boomers.[22][34][35]

Defining a generation

Strauss and Howe define a social generation as the aggregate of all people born over a span of roughly twenty years or about the length of one phase of life: childhood, young adulthood, midlife, and old age. Generations are identified (from first birthyear to last) by looking for cohort groups of this length that share three criteria. First, members of a generation share what the authors call an age location in history: they encounter key historical events and social trends while occupying the same phase of life. In this view, members of a generation are shaped in lasting ways by the eras they encounter as children and young adults and they share certain common beliefs and behaviors. Aware of the experiences and traits that they share with their peers, members of a generation would also share a sense of common perceived membership in that generation.[36]

They based their definition of a generation on the work of various writers and social thinkers, from ancient writers such as Polybius and Ibn Khaldun to modern social theorists such as José Ortega y Gasset, Karl Mannheim, John Stuart Mill, Émile Littré, Auguste Comte, and François Mentré.[37]


While writing Generations, Strauss and Howe described a theorized pattern in the historical generations they examined, which they say revolved around generational events which they call turnings. In Generations, and in greater detail in The Fourth Turning, they describe a four-stage cycle of social or mood eras which they call “turnings”. The turnings include: “The High”, “The Awakening”, “The Unraveling” and “The Crisis”.[31]


According to Strauss and Howe, the First Turning is a High, which occurs after a Crisis. During The High, institutions are strong and individualism is weak. Society is confident about where it wants to go collectively, though those outside the majoritarian center often feel stifled by the conformity.[38]

According to the authors, the most recent First Turning in the US was the post–World War II American High, beginning in 1946 and ending with the assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.[39]


According to the theory, the Second Turning is an Awakening. This is an era when institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy. Just when society is reaching its high tide of public progress, people suddenly tire of social discipline and want to recapture a sense of “self-awareness”, “spirituality” and “personal authenticity”. Young activists look back at the previous High as an era of cultural and spiritual poverty.[40]

Strauss & Howe say the US’s most recent Awakening was the “Consciousness Revolution,” which spanned from the campus and inner-city revolts of the mid-1960s to the tax revolts of the early 1980s.[41]


According to Strauss and Howe, the Third Turning is an Unraveling. The mood of this era they say is in many ways the opposite of a High: Institutions are weak and distrusted, while individualism is strong and flourishing. The authors say Highs come after Crises, when society wants to coalesce and build and avoid the death and destruction of the previous crisis. Unravelings come after Awakenings, when society wants to atomize and enjoy.[42] They say the most recent Unraveling in the US began in the 1980s and includes the Long Boom and Culture War.[31]


According to the authors, the Fourth Turning is a Crisis. This is an era of destruction, often involving war or revolution, in which institutional life is destroyed and rebuilt in response to a perceived threat to the nation’s survival. After the crisis, civic authority revives, cultural expression redirects towards community purpose, and people begin to locate themselves as members of a larger group.[43]

The authors say the previous Fourth Turning in the US began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and climaxed with the end of World War II. The G.I. Generation (which they call a Hero archetype, born 1901 to 1924) came of age during this era. They say their confidence, optimism, and collective outlook epitomized the mood of that era.[44] The authors assert the Millennial Generation (which they also describe as a Hero archetype, born 1982 to 2004) show many similar traits to those of the G.I. youth, which they describe as including: rising civic engagement, improving behavior, and collective confidence.[45]


The authors describe each turning as lasting about 20–22 years. Four turnings make up a full cycle of about 80 to 90 years,[46] which the authors term a saeculum, after the Latin word meaning both “a long human life” and “a natural century”.[47]

Generational change drives the cycle of turnings and determines its periodicity. As each generation ages into the next life phase (and a new social role) society’s mood and behavior fundamentally changes, giving rise to a new turning. Therefore, a symbiotic relationship exists between historical events and generational personas. Historical events shape generations in childhood and young adulthood; then, as parents and leaders in midlife and old age, generations in turn shape history.[48]

Each of the four turnings has a distinct mood that recurs every saeculum. Strauss and Howe describe these turnings as the “seasons of history”. At one extreme is the Awakening, which is analogous to summer, and at the other extreme is the Crisis, which is analogous to winter. The turnings in between are transitional seasons, the High and the Unraveling are similar to spring and autumn, respectively.[49] Strauss and Howe have discussed 26 theorized turnings over 7 saecula in Anglo-American history, from the year 1435 through today.

At the heart of Strauss & Howe’s ideas is a basic alternation between two different types of eras, Crises and Awakenings. Both of these are defining eras in which people observe that historic events are radically altering their social environment.[50] Crises are periods marked by major secular upheaval, when society focuses on reorganizing the outer world of institutions and public behavior (they say the last American Crisis was the period spanning the Great Depression and World War II). Awakenings are periods marked by cultural or religious renewal, when society focuses on changing the inner world of values and private behavior (the last American Awakening was the “Consciousness Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s).[51]

During Crises, great peril provokes a societal consensus, an ethic of personal sacrifice, and strong institutional order. During Awakenings, an ethic of individualism emerges, and the institutional order is attacked by new social ideals and spiritual agendas.[52] According to the authors, about every eighty to ninety years—the length of a long human life—a national Crisis occurs in American society. Roughly halfway to the next Crisis, a cultural Awakening occurs (historically, these have often been called Great Awakenings).[51]

In describing this cycle of Crises and Awakenings, they draw from the work of other historians and social scientists who have also discussed long cycles in American and European history. The cycle of Crises corresponds with long cycles of war identified by such scholars as Arnold J. Toynbee, Quincy Wright, and L. L. Ferrar Jr., and with geopolitical cycles identified by William R. Thompson and George Modelski.[53] Strauss and Howe say their cycle of Awakenings corresponds with Anthony Wallace‘s work on revitalization movements;[54] they also say recurring Crises and Awakenings correspond with two-stroke cycles in politics (Walter Dean Burnham, Arthur Schlesinger Sr. and Jr.), foreign affairs (Frank L. Klingberg), and the economy (Nikolai Kondratieff) as well as with long-term oscillations in crime and substance abuse.[55]


The authors say two different types of eras and two formative age locations associated with them (childhood and young adulthood) produce four generational archetypes that repeat sequentially, in rhythm with the cycle of Crises and Awakenings. In Generations, they refer to these four archetypes as Idealist, Reactive, Civic, and Adaptive.[56] In The Fourth Turning (1997) they change this terminology to Prophet, Nomad, Hero, and Artist.[57] They say the generations in each archetype not only share a similar age-location in history, they also share some basic attitudes towards family, risk, culture and values, and civic engagement. In essence, generations shaped by similar early-life experiences develop similar collective personas and follow similar life-trajectories.[58] To date, Strauss and Howe have described 25 generations in Anglo-American history, each with a corresponding archetype. The authors describe the archetypes as follows:


Abraham Lincoln, born in 1809. Strauss and Howe would identify him as a member of the Transcendental generation.

Prophet (Idealist) generations enter childhood during a High, a time of rejuvenated community life and consensus around a new societal order. Prophets grow up as the increasingly indulged children of this post-Crisis era, come of age as self-absorbed young crusaders of an Awakening, focus on morals and principles in midlife, and emerge as elders guiding another Crisis.[59] Examples: Transcendental Generation, Missionary Generation, Baby Boomers.


Nomad (Reactive) generations enter childhood during an Awakening, a time of social ideals and spiritual agendas, when young adults are passionately attacking the established institutional order. Nomads grow up as under-protected children during this Awakening, come of age as alienated, post-Awakening young adults, become pragmatic midlife leaders during a Crisis, and age into resilient post-Crisis elders.[59] Examples: Gilded Generation, Lost Generation, Generation X


Young adults fighting in World War II were born in the early part of the 20th century, like PT109 commander LTJGJohn F. Kennedy (b. 1917). They are part of the G.I. Generation, which follows the Hero archetype.

Hero (Civic) generations enter childhood after an Awakening, during an Unraveling, a time of individual pragmatism, self-reliance, and laissez-faire. Heroes grow up as increasingly protected post-Awakening children, come of age as team-oriented young optimists during a Crisis, emerge as energetic, overly-confident midlifers, and age into politically powerful elders attacked by another Awakening.[59] Examples: Republican Generation, G.I. Generation, Millennials


Artist (Adaptive) generations enter childhood after an Unraveling, during a Crisis, a time when great dangers cut down social and political complexity in favor of public consensus, aggressive institutions, and an ethic of personal sacrifice. Artists grow up overprotected by adults preoccupied with the Crisis, come of age as the socialized and conformist young adults of a post-Crisis world, break out as process-oriented midlife leaders during an Awakening, and age into thoughtful post-Awakening elders.[59] Examples: Progressive Generation, Silent Generation, Generation Z


  • An average life is 80 years, and consists of four periods of ~20–22 years
    • Childhood → Young adult → Midlife → Elderhood
  • A generation is an aggregate of people born every ~20–22 years
    • Baby Boomers → Gen X → Millennials → Homelanders
  • Each generation experiences “four turnings” every ~80–90 years
    • High → Awakening → Unraveling → Crisis
  • A generation is considered “dominant” or “recessive” according to the turning experienced as young adults. But as a youth generation comes of age and defines its collective persona an opposing generational archetype is in its midlife peak of power.
    • Dominant: independent behavior + attitudes in defining an era
    • Recessive: dependent role in defining an era
  • Dominant Generations
    • Prophet: Awakening as young adults. Awakening, defined: Institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy
    • Hero: Crisis as young adults. Crisis, defined: Institutional life is destroyed and rebuilt in response to a perceived threat to the nation’s survival
  • Recessive Generations
    • Nomad: Unraveling as young adults. Unraveling, defined: Institutions are weak and distrusted, individualism is strong and flourishing
    • Artist: High [when they become] young adults. High, defined: Institutions are strong and individualism is weak


Late Medieval Saeculum

Arthurian Generation

The Arthurian Generation was born between 1433 and 1460 and is of the hero archetype. Members of the generation grew up during England’s retreat from France, during an era of rising civil unrest.[60]

Humanist Generation

The Humanist Generation was born between 1461 and 1482 and is of the artist/adaptive archetype.

This generation came of age at the height of the Middle Ages, just prior to the Reformation and Renaissance. For the educated classes life was fairly static, with Renaissance Humanist teaching and a clear career path through the church or State bureaucracy becoming increasingly available for the educated middle classes. Humanist influences took hold across Europe, and in many ways prepared the intellectual landscape for the coming reformation. Their youth coincided with the development of the European Printing press allowing a greater dissemination of knowledge.[61]

According to Strauss and Howe, those who constituted this generation had a sheltered childhood during a bloody civil war and were educated abroad, becoming Greek language tutors, international scholars, poets, prelates, and literate merchants and yeomen.[62] The education produced by the humanist generation has been described as focused on the qualitative and the subjective, rather than the quantitative and the objective.[63]

Some of the notable persons who influenced this generation include Thomas More, Erasmus, Thomas Linacre, John Colet, Cardinal Wolsey, Michelangelo, Copernicus, Francisco Pizarro and Cesare Borgia. King Edward V was also born into this generation, but as he died at only 15 years old, it is difficult to properly place him in this archetype. However, according to the historian Dominic Mancini Edward was very fascinated with science and philosophy, and was very well learned beyond his years.[64]

Reformation Saeculum

Reformation Generation

Sir Thomas More (1527) by Hans Holbein the Younger

The Reformation Generation generation was born between 1483 and 1511 and is of the prophet archetype. This generation rebelled as youths, prompting the first colleges in the 1520s.[65]

Reprisal Generation

The Reprisal Generation was born between 1512 and 1540 and is of the nomad/reactive archetype. They spent their childhood amid religious frenzy and a widespread erosion of social authority—and came of age in a cynical, post-Awakening era of cut-throat politics and roller-coaster markets.[66] They crewed the ships during the wars of the Spanish Armada and saw the expansion of British territories and colonisation in the New World overseas.[67][68] Notable people in this generation include Elizabeth I, Catherine de Medici, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Thomas Gresham, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Francis Walsingham, Michel de Montaigne, Walter Raleigh, Nicholas Fuller, and Edward Coke.

Elizabethan Generation

The Elizabethan Generation was born between 1541 and 1565 and is of the hero archetype. They benefited as children from an explosive growth in academies intended to transform them into perfect people of civic achievement and teamwork. They came to age during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604). They regulated commerce, explored overseas empires, built English country houses, pursued science, and wrote poetry that celebrated an orderly universe.[69]

Parliamentary Generation

The Parliamentary Generation was born from 1566 and 1587 and are of the artist archetype. Their childhoods took place during an era of foreign threats and war. They built impeccable credentials in law, scholarship, religion, and arts and crafts guilds.[70]

New World Saeculum

Puritan Generation

The Puritan Generation was born from 1588 and 1617 and is of the prophet archetype. Members of the generation were led through the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639-1651) by King Charles I and others led a large migration to the United States. The generation was very religious.[71]

Cavalier Generation

See also: Cavalier § Social perceptions

The Cavalier Generation was born from 1618 to 1647 and were of the nomad archetype. Members of this generation grew up in an era of religious upheaval and family collapse. Their generation was notoriously violent and uneducated, causing men to take great risks, resulting in many young deaths.[72]

Glorious Generation

The Glorious Generation was born from 1648 to 1673 and were of the hero archetype. They had a protected childhood with tax-supported schools and new laws discouraging the kidnapping of young servants. After proving their worth in the Indian Wars and triumphing in the Glorious Revolution, they were rewarded with electoral office at a young age. As young adults, they took pride in the growing political, commercial, and scientific achievements of England. They designed insurance, paper money, and public works.[73]

Enlightenment Generation

The Enlightenment Generation’ was born between 1674 and 1700. They grew up as protected children when families were close, youth risk discouraged, and good educations and well-connected marriages highly prized. As adults they provided America’s first large cadre of credentialed professionals, political managers, and plantation administrators.[74]

Revolutionary Saeculum

Awakening Generation

The Awakening Generation was born between 1701 and 1723 and was of the prophet archetype. They were the first colonial generation to consist mostly of the offspring of native-born parents. As adults they attacked their elders’ moral complacency in a spiritual firestorm.[75]

Liberty Generation

Portrait of George Washington

The Liberty Generation (nomad archetype) was born between 1724 and 1741. Notable members include King George III, Czarina Catherine the Great, George Washington, Giacomo Casanova, Paul Revere, Thomas Paine, and Daniel Boone.

Republican Generation

The Republican Generation was born between 1742 and 1766. This generation is known for participating in several global revolutionary movements during the Age of Revolution. This generation witnessed political turmoil in response to growing British imperialism, and the vast social inequalities exacerbated by ruthless competition between European Monarchists.

They came of age during British imperialism and during a time when the viability of mercantilism was being questioned. Relying on Enlightenment philosophy, they unleashed violent episodes of revolution, vilified Monarchy, and promoted Republicanism. In colonial America, they participated in the American Revolutionary War, secured Independence from British rule, and established a libertarian system of governance, based on constitutional republicanism and representative democracy. Notable persons affiliated with this generation include Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Maximilien Robespierre, and Camille Desmoulins.

Compromise Generation

The Compromise Generation was born between 1767 and 1791 and were of the artist archetype. They “rocked in the cradle of the Revolution” as they watched brave adults struggle and triumph.[76]

Civil War Saeculum

Transcendental Generation

The Transcendental Generation was born between 1792 and 1821 and were of the prophet archetype. They started the Second Great Awakening across the United States.[77] Members of this generation include Abraham Lincoln, Joseph Smith, Henry David Thoreau, and William Lloyd Garrison

Gilded Generation

New York police violently attacking unemployed workers in Tompkins Square Park, 1874. See also: Gilded Age

The Gilded Generation was born from 1822 to 1842. They came of age amid rising national tempers, torrential immigration, rampant commercialism, conspicuous consumerism, declining college enrollment and economic disputes. This led to a distrust of zealotry and institutional involvement, shifting focus to a life of materialism. As young adults, many pursued fortunes in boomtowns of the American frontier. Members of this generation were also of age by the time the American Civil War began in 1861. Some of the notable persons who influenced this generation include Mark Twain, J. P. Morgan, Jay Gould, John D. Rockefeller, Ulysses S. Grant, Louisa May Alcott, Johannes Brahms, and Lewis Carroll.

Progressive Generation

The Progressive Generation was born from 1843 to 1859 and grew up during the American Civil War.

Great Power Saeculum

Missionary Generation

Suffragists marching in New York, 1915. Social Crusades were a defining feature.

The Missionary Generation was born from 1860 to 1882 and is of the prophet/idealist archetype. Members of the Missionary Generation have been described as the “home-and-hearth children of the post-Civil War era”. They were an idealist generation and as young adults, their leaders were the first graduates of newly formed black and women’s colleges. They rejected the strict Victorian values, questioned gender roles and feared society would become soulless, inhumane, and money-driven.[78] Their defining characteristics were missionary and social crusades, “Muckrakerjournalism, prohibitionism, workers’ rights, trade unionism and women’s suffrage.[79] In midlife, they developed Prohibition in the United States, immigration control, and organized vice squads.

Because the Lost Generation were so decimated by World War I, the leadership of the Missionary Generation lasted longer than previous generations and in the 1930s and 1940s, their elite became the “Wise Old Men” who enacted a “New Deal“, Social Security, led the global war against fascism, and reaffirmed America’s highest ideals during a transformative era in world history. This generation is fully ancestral, with the last known member of the Missionary Generation, the American Sarah Knauss, having died on December 30, 1999 at 119 years of age. Sociologist Naomi Schaefer Riley believes that a new “Missionary Generation” is forming in the children of the 2010s.[80]

Notable people in this generation include Konrad Adenauer, Roald Amundsen, Warwick Armstrong, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Stanley Baldwin, Alben W. Barkley, Béla Bartók, Gustav Bauer, R. B. Bennett, Steve Bloomer, William Jennings Bryan, Tommy Burns, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Willis Carrier, Enrico Caruso, Pablo Casals, Neville Chamberlain, Anton Chekhov, Winston Churchill, Gordon Coates, Joseph Cook, Calvin Coolidge, James J. Corbett, Madame Curie, Charles Curtis, Dwight F. Davis, Charles G. Dawes, Claude Debussy, Gaston Doumergue, W.E.B. DuBois, Albert Einstein, Andrew Fisher, Edwin Flack, George Forbes, C. B. Fry, Mahatma Gandhi, John Nance Garner, David Lloyd George, W.C. Handy, Warren Harding, George Hirst, Herbert Hoover, Billy Hughes, Charles Evans Hughes, Jimmy Hunter, James J. Jeffries, Jack Johnson, James Joyce, Carl Jung, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Rudyard Kipling, Fritz Kreisler, Albert Lebrun, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Norman Lindsay, Joseph Lyons, Douglas MacArthur, Ramsay MacDonald, Archie MacLaren, Gustav Mahler, Thomas Mann, Guglielmo Marconi, Arnaud Massy, Henri Matisse, John McGraw, Chris McKivat, Arthur Meighen, Nellie Melba, A.A. Milne, Pierre Monteux, Elisabeth Moore, Dave Nourse, Earle Page, Franz von Papen, Pablo Picasso, Raymond Poincaré, Beatrix Potter, Maurice Ravel, Ernest Renshaw, William Renshaw, Wilfred Rhodes, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ernest Rutherford, Michael Joseph Savage, Philipp Scheidemann, Albert Schweitzer, James Scullin, Georges Seurat, Jean Sibelius, Upton Sinclair, Alex Smith, Joseph Stalin, Igor Stravinsky, Arturo Toscanini, Leon Trotsky, Victor Trumper, Nikolai Vavilov, Chris Watson, Billy Wedlock, H.G. Wells, Jess Willard, Joseph Wirth, Vivian Woodward, William Butler Yeats, and Cy Young.

Lost Generation

Main article: Lost Generation

The Lost Generation is the generation that came of age during World War I. “Lost” in this context also means “disoriented, wandering, directionless”—a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness among the war’s survivors in the early post-war years.” Members of this generation include Dwight Eisenhower, Ernest Hemingway, Al Capone, F. Scott Fitzgerald, T.S Eliot, Charles Ponzi, Adolf Hitler, Mao Zedong, and Norma Talmadge.

G.I. Generation

Main article: Greatest Generation

U.S. Navy veteran Ruth Harden sings as “Anchors Aweigh” is played during the dedication ceremony of the World War II memorial at Legislative Hall in Dover, Delaware, November 9, 2013.

The Greatest Generation, also known as the G.I. Generation and the World War II generation, is the demographic cohort following the Lost Generation and preceding the Silent Generation. The cohort is defined as individuals born between 1901 and 1924. They were shaped by the Great Depression and were the primary participants in World War II. Notable political figures of this generation include John F. Kennedy, Hirohito, and Chiang Ching-kuo.

Silent Generation

Main article: Silent Generation

The Silent Generation is the demographic cohort following the Greatest Generation and preceding the baby boomers. Strauss and Howe define the cohort as individuals born between 1925 and 1942. They became teenagers and adults during the postwar expansion that followed after World War II. They are considered to have been very economically well off and instrumental in 1950s culture. Notable political figures of this generation include Akihito, Michel Aoun, Silvio Berlusconi, Joe Biden, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Jacques Chirac, Chun Doo-hwan, Michael Dukakis, Itamar Franco, Michael D. Higgins, and Walter Mondale. Most of the architects who won the Pritzker Architecture Prize, including Frank Gehry and Robert Venturi, came from this generation as well.

Millennial Saeculum

Baby Boom Generation

Main article: Baby boomers

Strauss and Howe define the Baby Boom Generation as those born from 1943 to 1960. The members of this generation came into adulthood as critics of the Civil Rights Movement, the Vietnam War, and the rise of neoliberalism, but were mostly responsible for presiding over the upheaval that followed the Great Recession. Notable heads of state and government from this generation include Shinzo Abe, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo,Jair Bolsonaro, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Rodrigo Duterte, Xi Jinping, Alexander Lukashenko, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Theresa May, Narendra Modi, Evo Morales, Benjamin Netanyahu, Vladimir Putin, Cyril Ramaphosa, Dilma Rousseff, and Donald Trump. Other members include Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Yasushi Akimoto, Pat Benatar, Gary Bettman, Madonna, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Magic Johnson, Rob Manfred, Bobby Orr, Vince McMahon, Carlos Slim, and Bill Walton.

13th Generation

Main article: Generation X

Strauss and Howe define the 13th Generation as those born from 1961 to 1981. The members of this generation came into adulthood during the fall of communism in the late 1980s that led to the collapses of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia during the early 1990s, which ushered in neoliberalism, and became prominent figures in the aftermath of the Great Recession. The measures that were taken to address the recession led to numerous anti-globalization movements like the tea party movement, the Arab Spring, and the yellow vests movement, which would result in the rise of authoritarian populism and fascism during the 2010s. Notable political figures from this generation include Jeanine Áñez, Jacinda Ardern, Zuzana Čaputová, Boris Johnson, Julia Gillard, Nikki Haley, Scott Morrison, Mia Mottley, Barack Obama, Petro Poroshenko, and Justin Trudeau. Other known members of this generation include Akon, Tom Brady, Kobe Bryant, Martin Brodeur, Mike D, Brett Favre, Wayne Gretzky, Savannah Guthrie, Stephen Hillenburg, Whitney Houston, Jarome Iginla, Jay-Z, Janet Jackson, Angelina Jolie, Michael Jordan, Mario Lemieux, David Muir, Norah O’Donnell, Terrell Owens, Julia Roberts, Deion Sanders, Dan Schneider, and Gwen Stefani.

Millennial Generation

Main article: Millennials

Strauss and Howe define the Millennial Generation as those born from 1982 to 2004. The exact dates for this generation may be affected by current and future historical events.

Homeland Generation

Main article: Generation Z

Strauss and Howe define the Homeland Generation as those born from 2005 to present. The exact dates for this generation may be affected by current and future historical events.

Timing of generations and turnings

The authors argue that the basic length of both generations and turnings—about twenty years—derives from longstanding socially and biologically determined phases of life.[who?] This is the reason it has remained relatively constant over centuries.[81] Some have argued that rapid increases in technology in recent decades are shortening the length of a generation.[82] According to Strauss and Howe, however, this is not the case. As long as the transition to adulthood occurs around age 20, the transition to midlife around age 40, and the transition to old age around age 60, they say the basic length of both generations and turnings will remain the same.[81]

In their book, The Fourth Turning, however, Strauss and Howe say that the precise boundaries of generations and turnings are erratic. The generational rhythm is not like certain simple, inorganic cycles in physics or astronomy, where time and periodicity can be predicted to the second. Instead, it resembles the complex, organic cycles of biology, where basic intervals endure but precise timing is difficult to predict. Strauss and Howe compare the saecular rhythm to the four seasons, which they say similarly occur in the same order, but with slightly varying timing. Just as winter may come sooner or later, and be more or less severe in any given year, the same is true of a Fourth Turning in any given saeculum.[83]

GenerationArchetypeGeneration Birth Year SpanEntered childhood in aTurning Year Span
Late Medieval Saeculum
Arthurian GenerationHero (Civic)1433–1460 (28)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Retreat from France1435–1459 (24)[a]
Humanist GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1461–1482 (22)4th Turning: Crisis: War of the Roses1459–1497 (38)
Reformation Saeculum (97 years)
Reformation GenerationProphet (Idealist)1483–1511 (28)1st Turning: High: Tudor Renaissance1497–1517 (20)
Reprisal GenerationNomad (Reactive)1512–1540 (29)2nd Turning: Awakening: Protestant Reformation1517–1542 (25)
Elizabethan GenerationHero (Civic)1541–1565 (24)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Reaction & Marian Restoration1542–1569 (27)
Parliamentary GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1566–1587 (22)4th Turning: Crisis: Armada Crisis1569–1594 (25)
New World Saeculum (110 years)
Puritan GenerationProphet (Idealist)1588–1617 (30)1st Turning: High: Merrie England1594–1621 (27)
Cavalier GenerationNomad (Reactive)1618–1647 (30)2nd Turning: Awakening: Puritan Awakening1621–1649 (26)
Glorious GenerationHero (Civic)1648–1673 (26)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Restoration1649–1675 (26)
Enlightenment GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1674–1700 (27)4th Turning: Crisis: Glorious Revolution1675–1704 (29)
Revolutionary Saeculum (90 years)
Awakening GenerationProphet (Idealist)1701–1723 (23)1st Turning: High: Augustan Age of Empire1704–1727 (23)
Liberty GenerationNomad (Reactive)1724–1741 (18)2nd Turning: Awakening: Great Awakening1727–1746 (19)
Republican GenerationHero (Civic)1742–1766 (25)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)1746–1773 (27)
Compromise GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1767–1791 (23)4th Turning: Crisis: American Revolution1773–1794 (21)
Civil War Saeculum (71 years)
Transcendental GenerationProphet (Idealist)1792–1821 (28)1st Turning: High: Era of Good Feelings1794–1822 (28)
Gilded GenerationNomad (Reactive)1822–1842 (21)2nd Turning: Awakening: Transcendental Awakening1822–1844 (22)
N/A[b]Hero (Civic)1842–1843 (1)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Mexican–American War, Sectionalism1844–1860 (16)
Progressive GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1843–1859 (17)4th Turning: Crisis: Civil War1860–1865 (5)
Great Power Saeculum (81 years)
Missionary GenerationProphet (Idealist)1860–1882 (23)1st Turning: High: Reconstruction, Gilded Age1865–1886 (21)
Lost GenerationNomad (Reactive)1883–1900 (18)2nd Turning: Awakening: Missionary Awakening/Progressive Era1886–1908 (22)
G.I. GenerationHero (Civic)1901–1924 (24)3rd Turning: Unraveling: World War I, Roaring Twenties, Prohibition1908–1929 (21)
Silent GenerationArtist (Adaptive)1925–1942 (18)4th Turning: Crisis: Great Depression, World War II1929–1946 (17)
Millennial Saeculum (74 + years)
Baby Boom GenerationProphet (Idealist)1943–1960 (18)[84]1st Turning: High: American High1946–1964 (18)
13th Generation (Generation X)[c]Nomad (Reactive)1961–1981 (21)2nd Turning: Awakening: Consciousness Revolution, Fourth Great Awakening1964–1984 (20)
Millennial Generation (Generation Y)[d]Hero (Civic)1982–2004 (23)3rd Turning: Unraveling: Neoliberalism/Culture Wars1984–2008 (24)
Homeland Generation (Generation Z)[e]Artist (Adaptive)2005–present (age 15)4th Turning: Crisis: Great Recession, War on Terror,[f] COVID-19 pandemic and recession[86]2008–


  1. Generations and The Fourth Turning were published before the September 11 attacks, and some believe that this event was the catalyst of the Fourth Turning. However, Neil Howe identifies the Great Recession of 2008 as the catalyst.

Critical reception

The Strauss and Howe retelling of history through a generational lens has received mixed reviews. Many reviewers have praised the authors for their ambition, erudition and accessibility. For ex., former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, who graduated from Harvard University with Mr. Strauss, called Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069 the most stimulating book on American history he’d ever read. He even sent a copy to each member of Congress.[8] The theory has been influential in the fields of generational studies, marketing, and business management literature. However, it has also been criticized by several historians and some political scientists and journalists, as being overly-deterministic, non-falsifiable, and unsupported by rigorous evidence.[4][5][6]

Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069

After the publication of their first book Generations, Martin Keller a professor of history at Brandeis University, said that the authors “had done their homework”. He said that their theory could be seen as pop-sociology and that it would “come in for a lot more criticism as history. But it’s almost always true that the broader you cast your net, the more holes it’s going to have. And I admire [the authors’] boldness.”[87] Sociologist David Riesman and political scientist Richard Neustadt offered strong, if qualified, praise. Riesman found in the work an “impressive grasp of a great many theoretical and historical bits and pieces” and Neustadt said Strauss and Howe “are asking damned important questions, and I honor them.”[5]The Times Literary Supplement called it “fascinating” and “about as vague and plausible as astrological predictions”.[15] Publishers Weekly called it “as woolly as a newspaper horoscope“.[8][14]

In 1991, Jonathan Alter wrote in Newsweek that Generations was a “provocative, erudite and engaging analysis of the rhythms of American life”. However, he believed it was also “an elaborate historical horoscope that will never withstand scholarly scrutiny.” He continued, “these sequential ‘peer personalities’ are often silly, but the book provides reams of fresh evidence that American history is indeed cyclical, as Arthur Schlesinger Jr. and others have long argued.” But he complained, “The generational boundaries are plainly arbitrary. The authors lump together everyone born from 1943 through the end of 1960 (Baby Boomers), a group whose two extremes have little in common. And the predictions are facile and reckless.” He concluded: “However fun and informative, the truth about generational generalizations is that they’re generally unsatisfactory.”[13] Arthur E. Levine, a former president of the Teachers College of Columbia University said “Generational images are stereotypes. There are some differences that stand out, but there are more similarities between students of the past and the present. But if you wrote a book saying that, how interesting would it be?”[8]

In response to criticism that they stereotype or generalize all members of a generation the authors have said, “We’ve never tried to say that any individual generation is going to be monochromatic. It’ll obviously include all kinds of people. But as you look at generations as social units, we consider it to be at least as powerful and, in our view, far more powerful than other social groupings such as economic class, race, sex, religion and political parties.”[17]

Gerald Pershall wrote in 1991: “Generations is guaranteed to attract pop history and pop social science buffs. Among professional historians, it faces a tougher sell. Period specialists will resist the idea that their period is akin to several others. Sweeping theories of history are long out of fashion in the halls of ivy, and the authors’ lack of academic standing won’t help their cause. Their generational quartet is “just too wooden” and “too neat,” says one Yale historian. “Prediction is for prophets,” scoffed William McLoughlin (a former history professor at Brown), who said it is wrong to think that “if you put enough data together and have enough charts and graphs, you’ve made history into a science.” He also said the book might get a friendlier reception in sociology and political science departments than the science department.[5]

In 1991, professor and New York Times writer Jay Dolan critiqued Generations for not talking more about class, race and sex, to which Neil Howe replied that they “are probably generalizations not even as effective as a generation to say something about how people think and behave. One of the things to understand is that most historians never look at history in terms of generations. They prefer to tell history as a seamless row of 55-year-old leaders who always tend to think and behave the same way — but they don’t and they never have. If you look at the way America’s 55-year-old leaders were acting in the 1960s — you know, the ebullience and confidence of the JFKs and LBJs and Hubert Humphreys — and compare them with today’s leaders in Congress — the indecision, the lack of sure-footedness — I think you would have to agree that 55-year-olds do not always act the same way and you’re dealing with powerful generational forces at work that explain why one generation of war veterans, war heroes, and another generation which came of age in very different circumstances tend to have very different instincts about acting in the world.”[17]

Responding to criticisms in 1991, William Strauss accepted that some historians might not like their theory, which they presented as a new paradigm for looking at American history, that filled a need for a unifying vision of American history:

People are looking for a new way to connect themselves to the larger story of America. That is the problem. We’ve felt adrift over the past 10 years, and we think that the way history has been presented over the past couple of decades has been more in terms of the little pieces and people are not as interested in the little pieces now. They’re looking for a unifying vision. We haven’t had unifying visions of the story of America for decades now, and we’re trying to provide it in this book. The kinds of historians who are drawn to our book — and I’m sure it will be very controversial among academics because we are presenting something that is so new — but the kinds who are drawn to it are the ones who themselves have focused on the human life cycle rather than just the sequential series of events. Some good examples of that are Morton Keller up at Brandeis and David Hackett Fischer. These are people who have noticed the power in not just generations, but the shifts that have happened over time in the way Americans have treated children and older people and have tried to link that to the broader currents of history.[17]

The Fourth Turning

In his review for the Boston Globe, historian David Kaiser called The Fourth Turning “a provocative and immensely entertaining outline of American history, Strauss and Howe have taken a gamble”. “If the United States calmly makes it to 2015, their work will end up in the ashcan of history, but if they are right, they will take their place among the great American prophets.”[88] Kaiser has since argued that Strauss and Howe’s predictions of coming crisis seems to have occurred, citing events such as 9/11,[89] the 2008 financial crisis,[90] and the recent political gridlock.[91]

Kaiser has incorporated Strauss and Howe’s theory in two historical works of his own, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (2000), and No End Save Victory: How FDR Led the Nation into War (2014).[92][93] Michael Lind, a historian and co-founder of the New America Foundation, wrote that The Fourth Turning (1997) was vague and verged into the realm of “pseudoscience“; “most of the authors’ predictions about the American future turn out to be as vague as those of fortune cookies”.[6][94] Lind said that the theory is essentially “non-falsifiable” and “mystifying,” although he believed the authors did have some insights into modern American history.

For The New York Times in 2017, Pulitzer-winning journalist Jeremy Peters wrote that “many academic historians dismiss the book as about as scientific as astrology or a Nostradamus text.”[9]

Sean Wilentz, an American history professor at Princeton University, said, “’It’s just a conceit. It’s a fiction, it’s all made up,’ Wilentz said about cyclical historical models. ‘There’s nothing to them. They’re just inventions.'”[94]

13th Gen

In 1993, Andrew Leonard reviewed the book 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?. He wrote “as the authors (Strauss and Howe) relentlessly attack the iniquitous ‘child-abusive culture’ of the 1960s and ’70s and exult in heaping insult after insult on their own generation — they caricature Baby Boomers as countercultural, long-haired, sex-obsessed hedonists — their real agenda begins to surface. That agenda becomes clear in part of their wish list for how the 13th generation may influence the future: “13ers will reverse the frenzied and centrifugal cultural directions of their younger years. They will clean up entertainment, de-diversify the culture, reinvent core symbols of national unity, reaffirm rituals of family and neighborhood bonding, and re-erect barriers to cushion communities from unwanted upheaval.”[95]

Again in 1993, writing for The Globe and Mail, Jim Cormier reviewed the same book: “self-described boomers Howe and Strauss add no profound layer of analysis to previous pop press observations. But in cobbling together a more extensive overview of the problems and concerns of the group they call the 13ers, they’ve created a valuable primer for other fogeys who are feeling seriously out of touch.” Cormier wrote that the authors “raised as many new questions as answers about the generation that doesn’t want to be a generation. But at least they’ve made an honest, empathetic and good-humoured effort to bridge the bitter gap between the twentysomethings and fortysomethings.”[96]

In 1993, Charles Laurence at the London Daily Telegraph wrote that, in 13th Gen, Strauss and Howe offered this youth generation “a relatively neutral definition as the 13th American generation from the Founding Fathers,”.[97] According to Alexander Ferron’s review in Eye Magazine,13th Gen is best read as the work of two top-level historians. While its agenda is the 13th generation, it can also be seen as an incredibly well-written and exhaustive history of America from 1960 to 1981–examining the era through everything except the traditional historical subjects (war, politics, famine, etc).”[98]

In 2011, Jon D. Miller, at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, funded by the National Science Foundation,[99] wrote that their birth year definition (1961 to 1981) of “Generation X” (“13th Gen”) has been widely used in popular and academic literature.[100]

Millennials Rising

David Brooks reviewed the follow-up book about the next generation titled Millennials Rising (2000). “Millennials” is a term coined by Strauss and Howe.[101] Brooks wrote: “This is not a good book, if by good you mean the kind of book in which the authors have rigorously sifted the evidence and carefully supported their assertions with data. But it is a very good bad book. It’s stuffed with interesting nuggets. It’s brightly written. And if you get away from the generational mumbo jumbo, it illuminates changes that really do seem to be taking place.”[4] Further, Brooks wrote that the generations aren’t treated equally: “Basically, it sounds as if America has two greatest generations at either end of the age scale and two crummiest in the middle”.[4]

In 2001, reviewer Dina Gomez wrote in NEA Today that they make their case “convincingly,” with “intriguing analysis of popular culture” but conceded that it “over-generalizes”. Gomez argued that it is “hard to resist its hopeful vision for our children and future.”[102]

Millennials Rising ascribes seven “core traits” to Millennials: special, sheltered, confident, team-oriented, conventional, pressured, and achieving. A 2009, Chronicle of Higher Education report commented Howe and Strauss based these core traits on a “hodgepodge of anecdotes, statistics, and pop-culture references” and on surveys of approximately 600 high-school seniors from Fairfax County, Virginia, an affluent county with median household income approximately twice the national average. The report described Millennials Rising as a “good-news revolution” making “sweeping predictions” and as describing Millennials as “rule followers who were engaged, optimistic, and downright pleasant”, commenting the “book gave educators and tens of millions of parents, a warm feeling, saying who wouldn’t want to hear that their kids are special?”[8] Strauss and Howe base the turning start and end dates not on the generational birth year span, but when the prior generation is entering adulthood. A generation “coming of age” is signaled by a “triggering event” that marks the turning point and the ending of one turning and the beginning of the new. For example, the “triggering event” that marked the coming of age for the Baby Boom Generation was the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This marked the end of a first turning and the beginning of a second turning. This is why turning start and end dates don’t match up exactly with the generational birth years, but they tend to start and end a few years after the generational year spans. This also explains why a generation is described to have “entered childhood” during a particular turning, rather than “born during” a particular turning.
According to Strauss and Howe their generational types have appeared in Anglo-American history in a fixed order for more than 500 years with one hitch, occurring in the Civil War Saeculum. They say the reason for this is because according to the chart, the Civil War came about ten years too early; the adult generations allowed the worst aspects of their generational personalities to come through; and the Progressives grew up scarred rather than ennobled. As a result, there is no Hero Generation in this Cycle, although some alternative versions of the theory do include one.
Strauss and Howe initially used the name “13th Generation” in their 1991 book Generations, which was published mere weeks before Douglas Coupland‘s Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, but later adopted “Generation X” when it became the more widely accepted term for the cohort. The generation is so numbered because it is the thirteenth generation alive since American Independence (counting back until Benjamin Franklin’s Awakening Generation).[33]
“Millennial Generation”, a term Strauss and Howe used in their 1991 book Generations, has become the most widely-accepted name for this generation. Other names used in reference to it include Generation Y (as it is the generation following Generation X) and the Net Generation.
“New Silent Generation” was a proposed holding name used by Howe and Strauss in their 1991 book Generations. Howe has since referred to them as the “Homeland Generation” (or “New Adaptive Generation”) as they are the first generation to enter childhood after protective surveillance state measures, like the Department of Homeland Security, were put into effect following the September 11 attacks. This generation is now more widely referred to as “Generation Z”[8] or “Zoomers”.[85]

American ‘Stormtroopers’: A Bright, Shining Lie

With the Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse under nightly siege from violent communists, and Portland’s police hard-pressed to protect it, President Trump sent in federal agents to secure the building.

The reaction from Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi: “The use of stormtroopers under the guise of law and order is a tactic that is not appropriate to our country in any way.”

Majority Whip James Clyburn endorsed the speaker’s equating of the U.S. law enforcement officers to Ernst Rohm’s SA thugs being deployed to do the dirty work of Adolph Hitler.

“Nobody asked the federal government to come into Portland. Nobody asked them to come to Seattle,” ranted Clyburn. “This is something that’s made up of whole cloth by this administration as an excuse for sending in stormtroopers to incite the people.”

Clyburn had earlier compared the U.S. officers sent to Portland to Heinrich Himmler’s Nazi secret police: “This president and this attorney general seem to be doing everything they possibly can to impose Gestapo activities on local communities, and this is what I’ve been warning about for a long time.”

His Gestapo comparison recalls Sen. Abe Ribicoff’s denunciation of the Chicago police under Mayor Richard J. Daley during the 1968 Democratic National Convention after police clashed with radicals in Grant Park: “With George McGovern, we wouldn’t have Gestapo tactics in the streets of Chicago!”

What do the men and women of the FBI, DEA, ICE, DHS, CBP and the U.S. Marshals Service think of congressional leaders who equate them with Nazi stormtroopers and the Gestapo?

Outraged that Trump sent in federal agents to protect a building they had under siege for weeks, the Portland mob came out in even greater numbers and rioted through the weekend. Saturday night, there were solidarity riots with Portland in Seattle, Oakland, Austin, Richmond, and other cities.

Consider the depth of hatred of Trump that would cause leaders of the Democratic Party to compare U.S. law enforcement to Nazis.

Still, to date, no apologies have been heard.

Yet, as police are again being cursed and showered with debris, it is hard to see how this country reunites and around what, no matter which party prevails in November.

In addition to the reigniting of protests and riots in urban centers, there has come in tandem with demands to “defund the police” a surge in violent crime. Last week, Trump offered some staggering statistics:

“In New York City, over 300 people were shot in the last month alone, a 277 … percent increase over the same period of a year ago. Murders this year have spiked 27 percent in Philadelphia and 94 percent in Minneapolis compared to the same period in 2019.

“Perhaps no citizens have suffered more from the menace of violent crime than the wonderful people of Chicago. … At least 414 people have been murdered in the city this year, a roughly 50 percent increase over last year. More than 1,900 people have been shot. These are numbers that aren’t even to be believed.”

As Black Lives Matter protests revive, ostensibly for greater justice for black folks, a vastly disproportionate number of victims of these urban shootings and killings are black, as are a disproportionate number of the criminals doing the shooting and killing.

The New York Times suggests that a new “Silent Majority” of 2020, unlike Richard Nixon’s Silent Majority of 1969, backs the protesters and their causes.

A dissent: while the country was disgusted and outraged at George Floyd’s death from that cop kneeling on his neck and supported the protests and the calls for police reform, two months of Leftist rampages have taken their toll.

When the protests turned into riots, when the looting and arson began, when the statues began to be pulled down, when the rampages went on and on for weeks and months after Floyd’s death, support began to wane. And it is dissipating quickly.

The country is not going to sit still for three more months of this. At some point soon, America is going to say, “enough is enough.”

Moreover, Trump has turned a permanent presidential spotlight on a real outrage: the shootings and killings that go on year in and year out, and are now escalating, especially in poor black neighborhoods of major cities, are accepted as normal by the same liberal Democrats who have misruled those cities for decades.

Trump has put this issue on the table for the indefinite future. And the ferocity of the liberal reaction testifies to the validity of the issue and to the terror of the left: that a consistent stand for law and order — with the cops who guarantee it against the mobs that threaten it — might turn the tide in Middle America back to where it naturally resides.

The majority of Americans believe, and rightly so, that this is a good country. And they will eventually tune out radicals who visibly hate its heroes and history and have on offer nothing but their own inchoate rage.

Anti-Americanism: The New Anti-Semitism

What are the two most hated countries in the world?

America and Israel.

Who hates both America and Israel?

The left (and Islamists).

And why is that? Why does the left (not liberals, the left hate America and Israel?

In “Why the Jews; The Reason for Antisemitism,” a book I co-authored with Rabbi Joseph Telushkin in 1983 (the latest edition was published in 2016), we compared hatred of America with hatred of Jews.

This is what we wrote. It precisely explains what is happening in America today.

“Perhaps the best way to understand the admiration and resentment elicited by the quality of Jewish life is to compare the reactions of the world to America’s quality of life. No other country has so many people seeking to move there. At the same time, no country, with the exception of Israel, is the target of so many hateful and false attacks.

“The United States, because of its success and its ideals, challenges many people throughout the world. How did America, a nation composed largely of those rejected by other societies (‘The wretched refuse of your teeming shore’ declare the words at the base of the Statue of Liberty), become the most affluent, freest, most powerful, and most influential society in the world? Americans generally attribute this success to the values of America’s founding generations (such as individual liberty, religious tolerance, Judeo-Christian morality, and secular government), to a work ethic, and to the subsequent waves of immigrants who embraced these values. Enemies of America attribute it to the country’s natural resources, just as many people attribute Jewish success to their natural resource, alleged greater innate intelligence. Others claim that through capitalist exploitation, America cheated poorer countries, paralleling charges that Jewish success has been attained through econ!
omic ‘bloodsucking.’ Still others develop an imperialist version of America’s past and present, similar to the anti-Jewish charge of a world Jewish conspiracy.CARTOONS | Michael Ramirez View Cartoon

“But the United States is hardly the only society with great natural resources, and it has been the least imperialistic of the world’s powers. America’s values, not unfair resource distribution or world exploitation, have made the United States better, just as Judaism and its values, not genetic advantage or economic conspiracies, account for the quality of life led by Jews. The two people’s quality of life has provoked similar reactions — many admire them, and many resent them.”

Just like the Jews, America is hated because it is successful. For over a century, it has been the most successful country in the world — in virtually every way. If having had slavery was a real issue in the left’s anti-Americanism, the left would hate the Arab world and Latin American countries such as Brazil more than it hates the United States. While The New York Times and other left-wing institutions are preoccupied with slavery in America, they ignore — out of ideological nonconcern or out of sheer ignorance — the vastly larger number of Africans enslaved by Muslim and South American nations.

Of the more than 12 million African slaves shipped to the Western Hemisphere, only about 3% — between 306,000 and 380,000 — were sent to the United States. The other 97% were sent to the Caribbean and Brazil. And the slaves in the U.S. South lived longer and made larger families than the slaves of Latin America. Yet, the U.S. is singled out for hatred. Why? Because the left doesn’t resent Brazil. Brazil is not an object of envy.

Likewise, there is no left-wing hatred of the Arab world, which enslaved far more blacks than the North and South Americas combined did. The internationally recognized expert on African history, Senegalese anthropologist Tidiane N’Diaye, wrote: “Most people still have the so-called Transatlantic (slave) trade by Europeans into the New World in mind. But in reality the Arab-Muslim slavery was much greater. … The Arab Muslims were the most murderous of all those involved in the slave trade.” Part of that murderous treatment of African slaves involved castrating the males so they could not reproduce. And the women and girls were traded as sex slaves.

Where is the leftist anger at the Arab and Muslim world? There is, of course, none. On the contrary, the left protects the Muslim and Arab world against moral criticism.

The left hates America for its success and influence on the world, just as anti-Semites hated Jews for their success and influence on the world.

The left doesn’t hate America because it is bad. It hates America because it is good. If the left hated evil, it would love America and hate its enemies.

Billionaires Buying Minnesota Prosecutors?

Imagine a state’s attorney general accepting staff who were paid by a foundation that was funded by an out of state billionaire who had financial and political interests he wanted advanced. These volunteer assistant attorneys general waste little time filing lawsuits against the billionaire’s adversaries in Minnesota. They pursue their actions knowing full well that even if they succeed, the only result will be higher prices for all Minnesotans. 

That’s exactly what is happening right now in the Minnesota attorney general’s office. 

Recently, Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison’s office filed a lawsuit against the American Petroleum Institute, Exxon Mobil, and Koch Industries, claiming that they have caused “devastating economic and public-health consequences.” These entities have engaged in a “campaign of deception” concerning their carbon emissions. The lawsuit isn’t grounded in fact. It’s simply a replay of suits filed against energy providers that have already failed in other courts. 

Let’s call it political prosecution.

Two of the four attorneys on the Minnesota complaint came from a New York University fellowship program. Curiously, that program received $5.6 million in funding from the Bloomberg Family Foundation to support “defending and promoting clean energy, climate and environmental laws and policies.” Coincidentally, they hold the titles of “Special Assistant Attorney General” in the office. They even have official state e-mails. They receive these titles despite their salaries being paid by the Bloomberg Foundation. So, a Democrat mega-donor effectively bought influence inside our attorney general’s office? Shouldn’t this raise serious legal and ethical concerns?

The suit pretends that the science is already settled on what they categorize as the “severe environmental and social consequences” of carbon emissions. They must know that this is far from the case. They further claim that the world has warmed by two degrees Fahrenheit due to human-caused climate change. That two-degree number has never been proven. The role that human beings and their burning of hydrocarbon fuels may have played in any change is even more tenuous. 

Apparently, these energy companies should be held liable for disagreeing with what climate alarmists have projected, even though other respected scientists have challenged these findings. You may remember just a few weeks ago, one former climate alarmist made a public apology for claims he had previously made. A recent study found that over 100 of the climate models used by government climate scientists – between 1950 to 2015 – dramatically over-predicted warming rates. These energy companies are targeted largely because they disagree with these increasingly flawed models and forecasts.

Ellison’s job as the state’s chief legal officer is to uphold and enforce the law objectively. He represents all Minnesotans. He hasn’t found much time to prosecute rioters and those who defaced statues on the state capitol grounds. So why is he devoting so much time to suing companies that supply much-needed energy to Minnesotans? 

A New York judge threw out a similar suit, stating that “the scope of plaintiffs’ theory is breathtaking” and asked a critical question – “would it really be fair to now ignore our own responsibility in the use of fossil fuels and place the blame for global warming on those who supplied what we demanded?” Other judges have also ruled that courts are not the proper venue to address climate policy.

Minnesota continues to rely on hydrocarbon fuels. According to the Energy Information Administration, about 30 percent of all U.S. crude imports flow through the North Star State. Coal and natural gas generate over 60. percent of the state’s electricity. How can these frivolous lawsuits do anything but waste taxpayer’s money and drive up the price of energy?

We all want a cleaner environment. Suing energy providers won’t make anything better. Especially when similar lawsuits have already been adjudicated. It gets cold here in Minnesota. We need access to affordable energy. We have seen a dramatic 16.5-percent organic increase in electric power generation from 2007 to 2017. Wind and other renewables cannot carry the load. 

Politically motivated, frivolous lawsuits solve nothing. Allowing billionaires to pay for prosecutors sets a dangerous precedent. The whole thing demands oversight hearings.

Why This Revolution Isn’t Like the ’60s

In the 1960s and early ’70s, the U.S. was convulsed by massive protests calling for radical changes in the country’s attitudes on race, class, gender and sexual orientation. The Vietnam War and widespread college deferments were likely the fuel that ignited prior peaceful civil disobedience.

Sometimes the demonstrations became violent, as with the Watts riots of 1965 and the protests at the 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago. Terrorists from the Weathermen (later called the Weather Underground) bombed dozens of government buildings.

The ’60s revolution introduced to the country everything from hippies, communes, free love, mass tattooing, commonplace profanity, rampant drug use, rock music and high divorce rates to the war on poverty, massive government growth, feminism, affirmative action and race/gender/ethnic college curricula.

The enemies of the ’60s counterculture were the “establishment” — politicians, corporations, the military and the “square” generation” in general. Leftists targeted their parents, who had grown up in the Great Depression. That generation had won World War II and returned to create a booming postwar economy. After growing up with economic and military hardship, they sought a return to comfortable conformity in the 1950s.

A half-century after the earlier revolution, today’s cultural revolution is vastly different — and far more dangerous.

Government and debt have grown. Social activism is already institutionalized in hundreds of newer federal programs. The “Great Society” inaugurated a multitrillion-dollar investment in the welfare state. Divorce rates soared. The nuclear family waned. Immigration, both legal and illegal, skyrocketed.

Thus, America is far less resilient, and a far more divided, indebted and vulnerable target than it was in 1965.

Today, radicals are not protesting against 1950s conservatism but rather against the radicals of the 1960s, who as old liberals now hold power. Now, many of the current enforcers — blue-state governors, mayors and police chiefs — are from the left. Unlike Democratic Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley in the ’60s, today’s progressive civic leaders often sympathize with the protesters.

The ’60s protests were for racial assimilation and integration to reify Martin Luther King Jr.’s agenda of making race incidental, not essential, to the American mindset. Not so with today’s cultural revolution. It seeks to ensure that racial difference is the foundation of American life, dividing the country between supposed non-white victims and purported white victimizers, past and present.

In the ’60s, radicals rebelled against their teachers and professors, who were often highly competent and the products of fact-based and inductive education. Not so in 2020. Today’s radicals were taught not by traditionalists but by less-educated older radicals.

Another chief difference is debt. Most public education in the 1960s was bare-bones and relatively inexpensive. Because there were no plush dorms, latte bars, rock-climbing walls, diversity coordinators and provosts of inclusion, college tuition in real dollars was far cheaper.

The result was that 1960s student radicals graduated without much debt and for all their hipness could enter a booming economy with marketable skills. Today’s angry graduates owe a collective $1.6 trillion in student loan debt — much of it borrowed for mediocre, therapeutic and politicized training that does not impress employers.

College debt impedes maturity, marriage, child-raising, home ownership and the saving of money. In other words, today’s radical is far more desperate and angry that his college gambit never paid off.

Today’s divide is also geographical in the fashion of 1861, not just generational as in the 1960s. The two blue coasts seem to despise the vast red interior, and vice versa.

Yet the scariest trait of the current revolution is that many of its sympathizers haven’t changed much since the 1960s. They may be rich, powerful, influential and older, but they are just as reckless and see the current chaos as the final victory in their own long march from the ’60s.

Corporations are no longer seen as evil, but as woke contributors to the revolution. The military is no longer smeared as warmongering, but praised as a government employment service where race, class and gender agendas can be green-lighted without messy legislative debate. Unlike the 1960s, there are essentially no conservatives in Hollywood, on campuses or in government bureaucracies.

So the war no longer pits radicals against conservatives, but often socialists and anarchists against both liberals and conservatives.

In the ’60s, a huge “silent majority” finally had enough, elected Richard Nixon and slowed down the revolution by jailing its criminals, absorbing and moderating it. Today, if there is a silent mass of traditionalists and conservatives, they remain in hiding.

If they stay quiet in their veritable mental monasteries and deplore the violence in silence, the revolution will steamroll on. But as in the past, if they finally snap, decide enough is enough and reclaim their country, then even this cultural revolution will sputter out, too.

Tom Cotton Introduces Bill to Remove Federal Funding of 1619 Project Curriculum

Sen. Tom Cotton (R-AR), has introduced a new bill that would prohibit federal funds from being used to teach the 1619 Project at K-12 schools and school districts. The bill would also render schools that teach the 1619 Project ineligible for purposes of receiving federal professional-development grants. 

“The New York Times’s 1619 Project is a racially divisive, revisionist account of history that denies the noble principles of freedom and equality on which our nation was founded. Not a single cent of federal funding should go to indoctrinate young Americans with this left-wing garbage,” Sen. Cotton is quoted in a press release.

The 1619 Project, created by Nikole Hannah-Jones, a staff writer for The New York Times Magazine, rewrites the history of the United States to begin with 1619, the year when African slaves were offloaded onto the shores of Virginia. The 1619 Project identified slavery and its subsequent effects as the central driving force throughout American history. The Project has been criticized by historians as being inaccurate. But, despite the inaccuracies, Hannah-Jones was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for her work.

Cotton’s bill, Saving American History Act of 2020, would require the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture to prorate federal funding to schools that teach the 1619 Project based on a determination of how much it costs to teach the curriculum at each school. 

According to Sen. Cotton, several schools have already begun incorporating the 1619 Project into their curricula. These schools and school districts include Chicago; Newark, New Jersey; Buffalo, New York; and Washington, D.C. 

2020 CD Collection

Aphex Twin Selected Ambient Works 85-92 2002
Various 100 Hits Rock Jukebox 2016
Sasha & John Digweed Renaissance: The Mix Collection 1994
Dave Seaman And Ian Ossia Renaissance: The Mix Collection Part 4 1996
The Thrillseekers Nightmusic Volume 1 2005
The Thrillseekers Nightmusic Volume 3 2008
The Thrillseekers Nightmusic Volume 2 2007
System Of A Down Toxicity 2001
System Of A Down System Of A Down 0
Thom Brennan Vibrant Water 2001
Above & Beyond Anjunabeats Volume One 2003
Above & Beyond Anjunabeats Volume Two 2006
Above & Beyond Anjunabeats Volume Three 2005
Above & Beyond Tri-State 2006
Above & Beyond Anjunabeats Volume Four 2006
Above & Beyond Anjunabeats Volume Five 2007
Jaytech & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 02 2010
Jaytech & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 03 2011
Jaytech & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 04 2012
Jody Wisternoff & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 05 2013
Jody Wisternoff & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 06 2014
Jody Wisternoff & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 07 2015
Way Out West Tuesday Maybe 2017
Jody Wisternoff & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 09 2017
James Grant (4) & Jody Wisternoff Anjunadeep 10 2019
Jody Wisternoff & James Grant (4) Anjunadeep 11 2020
Various Anjunadeep In Miami 2018 2018
Brooks & Dunn Brand New Man 1991
Brooks & Dunn (3) Waitin’ On Sundown 1994
Brooks & Dunn Steers & Stripes 2001
Alan Jackson (2) 34 Number Ones 2010
Brooks & Dunn The Greatest Hits Collection 1997
Various Universal Religion – Chapter One 2003
Armin van Buuren Universal Religion 2004, Live From Armada At Ibiza 2004
Markus Schulz Miami ’05 2005
Various A State Of Trance – The Collected 12″ Mixes 2005
Various Electronic Elements: The Collected 12″ Mixes 2005
Various Electronic Elements: The Collected 12″ Mixes 2005
Markus Schulz Ibiza ’06 2006
Various A State Of Trance – Collected 12″ Mixes Volume 2 2007
Various Electronic Elements: The Collected 12″ Mixes Vol. 2 2007
Sunlounger Another Day On The Terrace 2007
Markus Schulz Amsterdam 08 2008
Various Captivating Sounds – The Collected 12″ Mixes Volume 2 2008
Various A State Of Trance – Collected Extended Versions Volume 3 2008
Roger P. Shah Magic Island: Music For Balearic People 2008
Markus Schulz Toronto ’09 2009
Various A State Of Trance – Collected Extended Versions Volume 4 2009
Armin van Buuren Universal Religion Chapter 4 – Special Edition 2009
Dash Berlin The New Daylight 2009
Sunlounger The Downtempo Edition 2010
Markus Schulz Las Vegas ’10 2010
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance 2010 2010
Dash Berlin United Destination 2010 2010
Roger P. Shah Magic Island: Music For Balearic People Vol. 3 2010
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance 2004 – 2009 2010
Markus Schulz Prague ’11 2011
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance 2011 2011
Various A State Of Trance 500 2011
Dash Berlin United Destination 2011 2011
Armin van Buuren Universal Religion Chapter Five 2011
Markus Schulz Los Angeles ’12 2012
Various A State Of Trance 550: Invasion 2012
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 7 2012
Various A State Of Trance Episode 600 The Expedition 2013
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 8 2013
Armin van Buuren Universal Religion Chapter Seven 2013
Markus Schulz Buenos Aires ’13 2013
Various A State Of Trance 650 – New Horizons 2014
Armin van Buuren Anthems – Ultimate Singles Collected 2014
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance 2015 2015
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 10 2015
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 11 2016
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance – 15 Years 2016
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance 800 2017
Various A State Of Trance Classics 12 2017
Various A State Of Trance Classics 13 2018
Sunlounger Sunny Tales 2008
Various A State Of Trance 400 – The Celebration Edition 2009
The Future Sound Of London Dead Cities 1996
The Chemical Brothers Dig Your Own Hole 1997
The Future Sound Of London Lifeforms 1994
Dream Theater Images And Words 0
Led Zeppelin Led Zeppelin II 1999
Led Zeppelin Untitled 0
Led Zeppelin Led Zeppelin III 1987
King Gizzard And The Lizard Wizard Murder Of The Universe 2017
King Gizzard And The Lizard Wizard Nonagon Infinity 2016
Nick Warren Balance 018 2011
Henry Saiz Balance 019 2011
Danny Howells Balance 024 2013
Danny Tenaglia Balance 025 2014
Hernán Cattáneo Balance 026 2014
Hernán Cattáneo Balance Presents Sudbeat 2017
James Zabiela Balance 029 2018
Hernán Cattáneo Balance Presents Sunsetstrip 2019
Nick Warren Balance Presents The Soundgarden 2019
George Jones (2) 50 Years Of Hits 2004
John Digweed Bedrock Eleven: Compiled & Mixed John Digweed 2009
John Digweed Bedrock 12: Compiled By John Digweed 2010
John Digweed Bedrock 14: Compiled by John Digweed 2012
John Digweed / C-Jay (2) Bedrock 18 – Signals / Echoes 2016
John Digweed Bedrock XX 2018
John Digweed Live In Argentina 2013
John Digweed MMII 2002
John Digweed Live In Córdoba 2012
John Digweed Live In London 2012
John Digweed Live In Miami 2014
John Digweed Live In Montreal – Finale (Stereo) 2016
John Digweed Live In Montreal (Stereo) 2016
John Digweed Last Night At Output 2019
John Digweed Quattro 2020
John Digweed Live In South Beach 2015
John Digweed Structures 2010
John Digweed Structures Two 2011
John Digweed Live In Toronto 2014
John Digweed Live In Tokyo 2018
John Digweed & Nick Muir Versus 2013
John Digweed Bedrock Compiled & Mixed By John Digweed 1999
Beach House Teen Dream 2010
Cheap Trick We’re All Alright! 2017
DJ Tiësto Magik Two: Story Of The Fall 2011
DJ Tiësto Magik Four: A New Adventure 2012
DJ Tiësto Magik: First Flight 0
DJ Tiësto Magik Three: Far From Earth 2000
Solarstone + Orkidea Solarstone Presents… Pure Trance 2012
Solarstone Electronic Architecture 3 2014
DJ Tiësto Magik Five: Heaven Beyond 2000
Solarstone + Bryan Kearney Solarstone Presents… Pure Trance V3 2014
Solarstone + Gai Barone Solarstone Presents… Pure Trance V4 2015
DJ Tiësto Magik Six: Live In Amsterdam 2000
Forerunners, Solarstone & Sneijder Solarstone Presents… Pure Trance V5 2016
Ferry Corsten Artist Profile Series 1: Solar Serenades 1999
Robert Nickson, Solarstone & Factor B (2) Solarstone Presents… Pure Trance V6 2017
Kristina Sky, Solarstone & Lostly Solarstone Presents Pure Trance V7 2018
Metallica …And Justice For All 2013
Metallica Metallica 2013
Metallica Reload 2013
Carbon Based Lifeforms Derelicts 2017
Carbon Based Lifeforms Hydroponic Garden 2016
Carbon Based Lifeforms World Of Sleepers 2016
Carbon Based Lifeforms Interloper 2016
Paul Oakenfold Global Underground: Live In Oslo 1997
John Digweed Global Underground 006: Sydney 1998
Nick Warren Global Underground 011: Budapest 1999
Sasha Global Underground 013: Ibiza 1999
John Digweed 014: Hong Kong 1999
Nick Warren Global Underground 018: Amsterdam 2000
John Digweed Global Underground 019: Los Angeles 2001
Paul Oakenfold Global Underground 007: New York 1998
Nick Warren Global Underground 008: Brazil 1998
Paul Oakenfold Global Underground 007: New York 1998
Nick Warren Global Underground 018: Amsterdam 2000
Waylon Jennings Waylon The Ramblin’ Man 2000
Garth Brooks Sevens 1997
The Beach Boys Pet Sounds 1999
Radiohead The Bends 1995
Pink Floyd The Dark Side Of The Moon 1985
Iron Maiden Somewhere In Time 0
Radiohead Kid A 2000
Radiohead OK Computer 1997
Garth Brooks Longneck Bottle 1995
Garth Brooks Fresh Horses 1995
Eric Church Sinners Like Me 2006
Beastie Boys Paul’s Boutique 1989
Megadeth Peace Sells… But Who’s Buying? 0
Garth Brooks Garth Brooks 1989
Megadeth Rust In Peace 1990
King Gizzard And The Lizard Wizard I’m In Your Mind Fuzz 2014
ATB Peaktime Vol 4 – The DJ™ – In The Mix 2004
Cheap Trick The Latest 2009
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2006 2006
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 2 2007
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2007 2007
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 3 2008
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2008 2008
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2009 2009
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2010 2010
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2011 2012
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2012 2012
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2013 2013
Armin van Buuren A State Of Trance Year Mix 2014 2014
Various A State Of Trance Classics 2006
Various A State Of Trance Classics Vol. 4 2009
Daft Punk Random Access Memories 2013
Journey Greatest Hits 0
Bruce Springsteen The Essential Bruce Springsteen 2003
Jonas Brothers It’s About Time 2006
David Bowie ★ (Blackstar) 2016
Alice In Chains The Essential Alice In Chains 2006
Journey The Essential Journey 2008
The Byrds The Essential Byrds 3.0 2011
Judas Priest The Essential Judas Priest 2008
Kris Kristofferson The Essential Kris Kristofferson 2004
Johnny Cash The Essential Johnny Cash 2002
Willie Nelson The Essential Willie Nelson 2015
Willie Nelson Red Headed Stranger 2000
Willie Nelson Greatest Hits (And Some That Will Be) 2003
Paul Oakenfold The Goa Mix 1995
Various Twelve Inch Eighties (Rhythm Is Gonna Get You) 2016
Various Twelve Inch Eighties (Let’s Groove) 2016
Various Twelve Inch Eighties (Can You Feel It) 2016
Various Twelve Inch Eighties (You Spin Me Round) 2016
Various Twelve Inch Eighties (People Hold On) 2016
Weezer Weezer 2016
Tim McGraw Tim McGraw 1993
LeAnn Rimes Blue 1996
Tim McGraw Everywhere 1997
LeAnn Rimes This Woman 2005
LeAnn Rimes Family 2007
Tim McGraw Number One Hits 2010
Tim McGraw Greatest Hits 2001
Matt Darey Ibiza Euphoria 1999
2Pac All Eyez On Me 0
Way Out West Way Out West 1997
Paul van Dyk Out There And Back 2000
Weezer Weezer 1994
Weezer Weezer 2008
Ferry Corsten Passport: United States Of America 2007
Way Out West Don’t Look Now 2004
Dream Theater Awake 0
Model 500 Starlight 2008
Metallica Ride The Lightning 0
Metallica Master Of Puppets 0
Eric Church Chief 2011
The Clash The Essential Clash 2005
Michael Jackson Thriller 1983
Michael Jackson Number Ones 2003
Korn Korn 1994
Ozzy Osbourne Blizzard Of Ozz 2011
Cheap Trick The Essential Cheap Trick 2004
James Holden Balance 005 2003
Sven Väth Accident In Paradise 1992
John Digweed Fabric 20 2005
Shades Of Orion Shades Of Orion 3 1996
Ferry Corsten Twice In A Blue Moon 2008
Ferry Corsten Ferry Corsten Presents Corsten’s Countdown – The Finest Selection Of 200 Shows 2011
Ferry Corsten Blueprint 2017
King Gizzard And The Lizard Wizard Polygondwanaland 2018
King Gizzard And The Lizard Wizard Flying Microtonal Banana 2017
The Future Sound Of London Environments II 2009
The Future Sound Of London Environments 3 2010
The Future Sound Of London Environments 4 2012
The Future Sound Of London Environment Five 2014
The Future Sound Of London Environment Six 2016
Guns N’ Roses Greatest Hits 2004
Com Truise Galactic Melt 2011
Com Truise Iteration 2017
Sasha Global Underground #013: Ibiza 2002
Deep Dish Global Underground 021: Moscow 2001
Nick Warren Reykjavik #024 2003
Deep Dish Toronto #025 2003
Deep Dish Global Underground #025: Toronto 2016
Nick Warren Shanghai #028 2005
Nick Warren Lima: GU35 2008
Patrice Bäumel Berlin #GU42 2019
Various Global Underground Twenty 2016
Sasha Fundacion NYC 2005
Sasha Involver 2004
Sasha Involver 2004
Sasha Involver 2004
Sasha Invol2ver 2008
Various :Select 4 2019
Various :Select 2016
Various Global Underground: Select 3 2018
Queen Greatest Hits 2004
Jonas Brothers Lines, Vines & Trying Times 2009
Queen Greatest Hits II 2011
Queen Greatest Hits III 1999
Burial Untrue 2007
The Future Sound Of London Accelerator 1996
Various Cosmic Conspiracy 1997
DJ Tiësto Live At Innercity – Amsterdam RAI 1999
DJ Tiësto Live At Innercity – Amsterdam RAI 1999
Ferry Corsten Live At Innercity – Amsterdam RAI 1999
Korn Follow The Leader 1998
Sasha & John Digweed Northern Exposure: Expeditions 1999
Tame Impala Currents 2015
Tame Impala The Slow Rush 2020
U2 The Joshua Tree 0
David Bowie The Next Day 2013
John Digweed The Winning Ticket 1997
Ozzy Osbourne Speak Of The Devil 1986
Three Days Grace One-X 2006
Three Days Grace Three Days Grace 2003
Sasha & John Digweed Communicate 2000
Shpongle Are You Shpongled? 2001
Shpongle Tales Of The Inexpressible 2001
Sasha Airdrawndagger 2002
Paul Oakenfold Tranceport 1998
DJ Shog & Klubbingman Technics DJ Set Volume Eleven 2005
DJ Shog & Pulsedriver Technics DJ Set Volume Twelve 2005
DJ Shog & DJ Dean Technics DJ Set Volume 13 2005
DJ Shog & Shogs 2 Faces Technics DJ Set Volume 14 2006
DJ Shog & Shaun Baker Technics DJ Set Volume 16 2006
DJ Shog & Nic Chagall Technics DJ Set Volume 17 2007
DJ Shog & Starsplash AKA Franky Tunes Technics DJ Set Volume 18 2007
DJ Shog & Shogs 2 Faces Technics DJ Set Volume 19 2007
DJ Shog & Dave 202 Technics DJ Set Volume 20 2008
DJ Shog & Shogs 2 Faces Technics DJ Set Volume 15 2006
ATB Sunset Beach DJ Session 2 2012
ATB The DJ™2 – In The Mix 2004
ATB Sunset Beach DJ Session 2010
ATB The DJ’4 – In The Mix 2007
ATB The DJ’5 – In The Mix 2010
ATB The DJ™6 – In The Mix 2010
Lindstrøm LateNightTales 2007
Sasha Scene Delete 2016
Willie Nelson To All The Girls… 2013
Garth Brooks The Hits 1995
Garth Brooks In Pieces 1993
Roger P. Shah Magic Island – Music For Balearic People Vol. 6 2015
Roger P. Shah Magic Island – Music For Balearic People Vol. 7 2016
Roger P. Shah Magic Island – Music For Balearic People Vol. 9 2019
Roger P. Shah Magic Island – Music For Balearic People Vol. 8 2017
ATB The DJ In The Mix ‘3 2006
DJ Tiësto Magikal Journey (The Hits Collection 1998-2008) 2010
Pond (5) The Weather 2017
Pond (5) Tasmania 2019
George Strait Twang 2009
George Strait Latest Greatest Straitest Hits 2000
George Strait George Strait 2000
George Strait The Best Of George Strait 2002
George Strait 50 Number Ones 2004
George Strait Troubadour 2008
George Strait I Just Want To Dance With You 1998
Lynyrd Skynyrd All Time Greatest Hits 2000
Shania Twain Come On Over 1997
Chris Stapleton Traveller 2015
Neutral Milk Hotel In The Aeroplane Over The Sea 1998
Amon Amarth Once Sent From The Golden Hall 1998
Amon Amarth Versus The World 2002
Amon Amarth With Oden On Our Side 2006
Amon Amarth Twilight Of The Thunder God 2008
Amon Amarth Surtur Rising 2011
Amon Amarth The Pursuit Of Vikings (25 Years In The Eye Of The Storm) 2018
Black Sabbath The Best Of Black Sabbath 2000
Elder (2) Dead Roots Stirring 2011
Various Creamfields 10 Years – The Album 2008
Ferry Corsten Infinite Euphoria 2004
Sasha Invol<3r 2013
System F – Ferry Corsten Trance Nation 1999
System F / Ferry Corsten Trance Nation 2 1999
Tame Impala Innerspeaker 2010
Tame Impala Lonerism 2012
Nu NRG Most Wanted 2007
Dixie Chicks Wide Open Spaces 1998
Ferry Corsten Right Of Way 2004
Mötley Crüe Greatest Hits 1998
DJ Tiësto Club Life Volume Two Miami 2012
BT Movement In Still Life 2000
Way Out West Intensify 2001
Paul Oakenfold Mount Everest – The Base Camp Mix 2018
Paul Oakenfold The Goa Mix 2011 2010
Ferry Corsten WKND 2012
Paul Oakenfold Creamfields 2004
Death (2) The Sound Of Perseverance 1998
David Bowie Hunky Dory 2015
The Beatles Revolver 0
The Beatles Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band 0
Paul Oakenfold Trance Mission 2014
BT 今 Ima 1996
BT ESCM 1997
Ferry Corsten Once Upon A Night Vol. 2 2010
Ferry Corsten Once Upon A Night Vol. 3 2012
Ferry Corsten Presents: Full On Ibiza 2013
Ferry Corsten Once Upon A Night Vol. 4 2013
Ferry Corsten Full On Ibiza 2014 2014
Ferry Corsten Once Upon A Night (The Lost Tapes) 2011
Thom Brennan Signals In Moonlight 2006
Iron Maiden The Number Of The Beast 1998
The Strokes The New Abnormal 2020
Clint Black No Time To Kill 1993
Waylon Jennings Ultimate Waylon Jennings 0
Alabama Ultimate Alabama 20 #1 Hits 2004
Clint Black The Greatest Hits 1996
Martina McBride Greatest Hits 2001
Clint Black One Emotion 1994
The Strokes Is This It? 2001
Waylon Jennings The Essential Waylon Jennings 2008
Solitaire (2) Fearless 1996
Mastodon Leviathan 2004
Death (2) Human 2011
Death (2) Individual Thought Patterns 2011
Death (2) Scream Bloody Gore 2016
Sasha & John Digweed Renaissance: The Mix Collection 2004
Hernán Cattáneo The Masters Series Part 6 Volume 2 2005
Hernán Cattáneo Sequential 2006
John Digweed Transitions 2006
John Digweed Transitions Vol. 2 2007
John Digweed Transitions Vol. 3 2007
Dave Seaman Renaissance: The Masters Series Part 10 2008
John Digweed Transitions Vol.4 2008
Dave Seaman Renaissance: Desire 2001
Hernán Cattáneo Renaissance: The Masters Series Part 13 2009
Hernán Cattáneo The Masters Series Part 16 – Parallel 2010
Nick Warren And Danny Howells Renaissance – The Masters Series Part Four: Revelation 2001
Dave Seaman Renaissance: The Masters Series 2011
Hernán Cattáneo Renaissance: The Masters Series Part 17 2012
Tale Of Us Renaissance: The Mix Collection 2013
Nick Warren The Masters Series: Part 18 2013
Dave Seaman Renaissance: Awakening 2000
John Digweed Renaissance – The Mix Collection Part 2 1995
Aphex Twin Chosen Lords 2006
The Tuss Rushup Edge 2007
Mastodon Blood Mountain 2006
Dwight Yoakam Guitars, Cadillacs, Etc., Etc. 2006
Mastodon Crack The Skye 2009
Jonas Brothers Happiness Begins 2019
Armin van Buuren Universal Religion Chapter 3 – Live From Armada At Ibiza 2007
The Grateful Dead The Vault Box 2007
The Grateful Dead The Best Of The Grateful Dead 2015
Dream Theater Black Clouds & Silver Linings 2009
Death (2) Symbolic 2008
Slipknot Iowa 2001
Slipknot Slipknot 1999
Iron Maiden Seventh Son Of A Seventh Son 2002
Iron Maiden Powerslave 0
Alio Die Suspended Feathers 2005
The Stone Roses The Stone Roses 0
Aphex Twin Selected Ambient Works Volume II 0
Aphex Twin Drukqs 2001
Aphex Twin Richard D. James Album 1996
Rammstein Sehnsucht 1997
Solarstone Solaris International Electronic Architecture 2009
Solarstone Electronic Architecture 2 2011
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 2 2000
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 3: Panama 2002
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 3: Panama 2002
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 6: Ibiza 2007
Richard Durand In Search Of Sunrise 10: Australia 2012
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 1999
Markus Schulz, Jerome Isma-Ae, Orkidea In Search Of Sunrise 15 2019
Markus Schulz, Gabriel & Dresden, Andy Moor In Search Of Sunrise 14 2018
Kris Kristofferson The Greatest Hits 2003
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 2009
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 2 2010
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 3 2010
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 4 2011
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 5 2011
Blank & Jones So90s (Sonineties) 2012
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 7 (Ibiza) 2012
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 8 2013
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 9 2015
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 6 2011
Blank & Jones So80s (Soeighties) 10 2016
Jason Isbell And The 400 Unit Live From The Ryman 2018
Beach House 7 2018
Astral Projection Trust In Trance 1996
L.S.G. Rendezvous In Outer Space 1995
Radiohead In Rainbows 2008
Red Jerry Chilled Euphoria 2000
Solarstone Chilled Out Euphoria 2001
Jay Burnett Deeper Shades Of Euphoria 2003
John Digweed Global Underground 001: John Digweed – Sydney 1998
Sasha Global Underground 003: Sasha – San Francisco 1999
John Digweed & Nick Muir Stark Raving Mad 2003
Ferry Corsten Passport: Kingdom Of The Netherlands 2005
Paul van Dyk (R)Evolution : The Remixes 2013
Tool (2) Fear Inoculum 2019
Shpongle Nothing Lasts… But Nothing Is Lost 2005
Shpongle Ineffable Mysteries From Shpongleland 2009
Shpongle Museum Of Consciousness 2013
Shpongle Codex VI 2017
Aes Dana Memory Shell 2004
Carbon Based Lifeforms Twentythree 2011
Aes Dana Pollen 2012
Aes Dana Leylines 2009
Above & Beyond Anjunadeep:01 2009
Ferry Corsten Once Upon A Night 2010
Sasha & John Digweed Northern Exposure 1997
Sasha & John Digweed Northern Exposure 2 (East Coast Edition) 1998
Sasha & John Digweed Northern Exposure 2 (West Coast Edition) 1998
Underworld 1992-2012 The Anthology 2012
Armin van Buuren 001 A State Of Trance 2000
Armin van Buuren 002 Basic Instinct 2001
Rammstein Mutter 0
Nu NRG Freefall 2004
David Bowie 1. Outside (The Nathan Adler Diaries: A Hyper Cycle) 1995
A Perfect Circle Mer De Noms 2000
A Perfect Circle Emotive 0
Daft Punk Discovery 2001
The Smashing Pumpkins Siamese Dream 2011
Daft Punk Human After All 2005
David Bowie The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars 2002
Daft Punk Homework 1997
Tool (2) Lateralus 2001
Black Sabbath Master Of Reality 1987
Black Sabbath Sabbath Bloody Sabbath 1988
Black Sabbath Heaven And Hell 1987
Black Sabbath Mob Rules 1989
Linkin Park Meteora 2003
Metallica Death Magnetic 2008
Dire Straits Brothers In Arms 0
Dire Straits On Every Street 0
ZZ Top Greatest Hits 1992
Linkin Park Hybrid Theory 2000
The Smiths The Queen Is Dead 2017
Black Sabbath Black Sabbath 2016
Black Sabbath Paranoid 2016
Van Halen The Studio Albums 1978 – 1984 2013
DJ Shog & Cosmic Gate Technics DJ Set Volume Three 2001
DJ Shog & Beam Technics DJ Set Volume One 2001
DJ Shog & Green Court AKA Marc Dawn Technics DJ Set Volume Two 2001
DJ Shog / Cosmic Gate Technics DJ Set Volume Three 2002
DJ Shog & DuMonde a.k.a. JamX & De Leon Technics DJ Set Volume Five 2002
DJ Shog & Essential DJ-Team Technics DJ Set Volume Six 2002
DJ Shog & CJ Stone Technics DJ Set Volume Four 2002
DJ Shog, Rocco Technics DJ Set Volume Seven 2002
DJ Shog & Talla 2XLC Technics DJ Set Volume Eight 2003
DJ Shog & Megara Vs. DJ Lee Technics DJ Set Volume Nine 2003
DJ Shog & Special D. Technics DJ Set Volume Ten 2003
DJ Shog / Essential DJ-Team Technics DJ Set Volume Six 2002
Autechre Amber 2006
Autechre Tri Repetae 2006
Aphex Twin …I Care Because You Do 1995
ATB Seven Years – 1998-2005 2005
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 5: Los Angeles (Volume 2) 2006
DJ Tiësto In Search Of Sunrise 5 – Los Angeles (Volume 1) 2006
Radiohead A Moon Shaped Pool 2016
Tool (2) Ænima 1996

If Unborn Lives Don’t Matter, No Lives Matter

For years, pro-life activists — including and especially African Americans involved in the pro-life cause — have called attention to Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger, and her deeply racist views.

Sanger was an unabashed eugenicist who believed that entire races and classes of people were inferior and thus “unfit” to reproduce; their expanding birthrate was, in Sanger’s view, “the greatest present menace to civilization.” This included immigrants, those with mental illness, the poor, the “Asiatic races” and Blacks, who she called “human weeds.”

The left, which purports to care about the poor and to champion equality for Black Americans, has always ignored the explicit racism of Planned Parenthood’s founder. But in today’s fraught climate where statues and monuments of historic figures are vandalized and torn down, Sanger could no longer remain unscathed. This past week, Planned Parenthood of Greater New York announced it is renaming the Margaret Sanger Health Center in Manhattan and Margaret Sanger Square, where the building sits, as “a necessary and overdue step to reckon with our legacy and acknowledge Planned Parenthood’s contributions to historical reproductive harm within communities of color.”

One cheer for Planned Parenthood. That’s like renaming Auschwitz but keeping the ovens.

It’s hard to see how the abortion giant is going to remediate the shockingly disparate impact that its practices have had on the Black community in the United States. A majority of Planned Parenthood offices are located within walking distance of minority communities. Blacks represent roughly 13 percent of the U.S. population but have up to 40 percent of all abortions annually. Across the country, nearly 30 percent of all pregnancies in Black women are terminated. In 2011, more than 360,000 black babies were aborted; that number was greater than all the deaths of Black Americans that year from all other causes combined. In response, a Texas pro-life organization created billboards with the tagline “The most dangerous place for an African-American is in the womb.” Lawsuits were filed that demanded the billboards be taken down — which they were. (The truth is an unwelcome guest in the abortion industry.) But the uproar did not die down, particularly after a 2013 report issued by the New York City government revealed that more Black babies were aborted than were born.

All told, more than 20 million black children have been aborted since the Supreme Court decided Roe v. Wade in 1973 — more than the entire number of people brought from Africa during 350 years of the Atlantic slave trade.

Why do these numbers not engender the same outrage as the deaths of George Floyd or Trayvon Martin? One answer is so unpleasant and painful that we rarely hear it explicitly stated: It’s because those responsible want those lives extinguished. Indeed, that is the rallying cry of so many feminists who say, “Shout your abortion,” “Abortion is health care” and “Free abortion on demand and without apology.”

In other words, those lives don’t matter because someone wants them gone.

A woman facing an unplanned pregnancy is clearly a very different actor than, say, a street criminal who shoots a rival gang member. But at the core of each act is a belief that says, “I have the power; therefore, I have the right.”

Denying the humanity of the unborn child — something advancing science and technology has made much more difficult — is just one of the ugly pathologies abortion contributes to. A society that celebrates abortion sends the message to children that their existence depends upon the whim of another, and that their value is contingent, at best.

Abortion has also become a form of birth control, a stopgap in a culture that values pleasure over self-restraint and personal responsibility. The same attitudes that demand easy access for abortion to end the pregnancies that casual sex often produces are also behind the explosion of children born outside of marriage, the increased likelihood of criminality among fatherless boys, the poorer educational outcomes and the generational poverty, with all its attendant physical and societal ills.

This country’s elite — our political, academic and entertainment/media classes — are, as it happens, overwhelmingly white and disproportionately left-wing. Within these groups are many loud voices promoting lifestyles of promiscuous sexuality, dispensing with marital fidelity and downplaying the need for the nuclear family.

Their wealth can insulate them — at least in part — from the consequences of their foolishness. That is not true of our poor, who have borne the brunt of our careless societal experimentation, and who cannot afford the au pairs, nannies, pricy preschools, nutritionists, tutors, therapists, counselors and expensive rehab facilities that the rich employ to buttress their lives and those of their children.

This self-indulgent irresponsibility among the truly privileged is, in and of itself, not only a form of racism but of callousness toward all human beings. To do whatever one wants, whatever the impact on others, is consummate selfishness.

We will never achieve a truly compassionate and egalitarian society unless we abandon the selfishness that got us here. Abortion is proof. In a society where unborn lives do not matter, no lives matter.

America Is Hitting the Self-Destruct Button

On Tuesday, The Wall Street Journal released the results of a poll performed in conjunction with NBC News. The poll found that 56 percent of Americans believe American society is racist. Seventy-one percent believe race relations are either very or fairly bad. Most troubling, 65 percent of black Americans say that racial discrimination is built into American society, “including into our policies and institutions.”

The notion that America is systemically racist bodes ill for the future. It’s also a dramatic lie. American history is replete with racism; racism was indeed the root of systems ranging from slavery to Jim Crow. But the story of America is the story of the cashing of Martin Luther King Jr.’s promissory note: fulfilling the pledge of the Declaration of Independence to treat all men equally and to grant them the protection of their unalienable natural rights. America has worked to extirpate the nearly universal sin of bigotry in pursuit of the fulfillment of the declaration. The story of America is 1776, not 1619; it’s Abraham Lincoln, not John C. Calhoun; it’s Martin Luther King Jr., not Robin DiAngelo.

It is particularly true today that American society does not deserve the scorn being heaped upon her head. American society is decidedly not racist. According to Swedish economists from World Values, America is one of the most racially tolerant countries on Earth. American law has banned discrimination on race for two generations and more than half a century; in fact, the only racially discriminatory laws on the books cut in favor of racial minorities, who have been granted special privileges in arenas like college admissions.

The police are no longer instruments of racial terror, contrary to popular media narrative; in many of America’s largest cities, police forces are either majority minority or nearly so, and police are not more likely to shoot and kill black Americans than white Americans. Problems of high crime in minority neighborhoods are generally a result of under-policing, rather than the converse.

Some problems of wealth inequality are in part products of history — history always has consequences. But overwhelmingly, the pathways to success are not barred by discrimination. Black Americans occupy many of the most prominent positions in American society, from government, to entertainment, to education, to finance. Responsible individual decision-making is generally rewarded for all Americans, black and white. And Americans are more than willing to fight those who would obstruct the possibility of success for those who make the right decisions.

More and more Americans apparently believe that the American system is endemically racist — yet the system produces more wealth, freedom and opportunity than any on Earth for millions of citizens of every color, creed and religion. If a majority of Americans believe that society is racist — not just individuals, but a vast swath of friends and neighbors, and America’s institutions to boot — then it will be quite difficult for Americans to unify.

No country can survive its citizens seeing one another as enemies rather than friends and seeing their country as a reflection of continuing evil embedded in its history. America, like every other nation, requires a common philosophy, culture and history to survive. And yet those elements are being consistently eroded by those who would rather collapse the American system in pursuit of some unspecified utopia.

That utopia will not come. All that will follow in the wake of the dissolution of our common bonds is chaos. The principles of the Declaration of Independence remain true; the promise remains durable. The only question is whether we are willing to stand up for those principles and work anew to fulfill those promises, rather than caving in the foundations of the greatest nation ever conceived by mankind.

Hold China Accountable – Or Give It Even More Control?

China unleashed COVID-19 on an unsuspecting world. It knew by early January 2020 (if not by December 2019 or earlier) that it was dealing with a vicious, fast-spreading disease in Wuhan, a city with more people than Chicago and New York City combined. But first it said nothing. Then it lied repeatedly, expelled foreign journalists, and threatened, silenced or “disappeared” Wuhan doctors who tried to warn the world. 

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) used its influence with the World Health Organization (WHO) to advance its false claims about the origins of the Wuhan virus (likely a laboratory or wet market in the city) and absence of human-to-human transmission. The CCP even claimed the virus was brought to Wuhan by US soldiers during an October 2019 military sports tournament. It shut down domestic travel to and from Wuhan, while allowing millions to fly between Wuhan and Europe, the United States, Africa and Latin America. 

By July 1, the Wuhan virus had sickened 11 million people worldwide and killed a half million – with 2.7 million ill and 130,000 dead in the USA alone. The virus caused trillions of dollars in economic damage, as the world issued stay-home orders, closed down global trade and made hundreds of millions jobless. Amid the pandemic, China shipped defective respirator masks, engaged in hoarding and price gouging on medical supplies, and expanded its campaign to blame other countries for the disaster.

A University of Southampton study concluded that, if China had been honest and transparent, and stopped foreign travel to and from Wuhan even three weeks before it actually did, global COVID-19 transmission could have been reduced by 95% and hundreds of thousands would not have died. Nor would the world economy have imploded. (The WHO refused to declare a global pandemic until March 11.) 

China’s outrageous behavior is nothing new. Companies wanting to sell products in China have long been compelled to build factories in China and share their technological and manufacturing secrets – while Chinese students, agents and hackers have systematically stolen other intellectual property and trade and defense secrets. Its treatment of Hong Kong, Laos and Chinese Uyghurs is duplicitous and immoral. 

Many have said China must be held accountable, punished, and made to pay reparations and financial penalties. Justice certainly demands that. In a more perfect world, it might even happen. However, securing a verdict on reparations would be a tall order, enforcing any verdict highly doubtful. 

China’s status as a global economic and military superpower is augmented by its positions on the United Nations Security Council, in the World Trade Organization, and on the UN Human Rights Council (along with Iran, North Korea and other moral exemplars). Its predatory lending practices make China an even more untrustworthy pariah, and conditions in its mines, processing plants and factories show that it has little regard for workers’ health or basic rights. Indeed, it demands that we ignore human rights issues

These problems are compounded by China’s control of numerous vital supply chains. China dominates not just manufacturing of US drugs like heparin, vaccines and penicillin, but the active ingredients that allow US companies to make other essential medicines. Chinese companies thereby control 70% of acetaminophen, and up to 95% of antibiotics and hydrocortisone. In 2008, contaminated heparin from China caused 81 US deaths. Much of the USA’s basic and high-tech medical equipment (respirators, surgical masks, protective gowns, and MRI and CT scan equipment) is also imported from China. 

The United States is also beholden to China for metals and minerals in energy, aerospace, defense, telecom and other industries. Joe Biden, AOC, Democrats and environmentalist groups would not just shut down fossil fuel production, pipelines and fuels for power generation and manufacturing. They would effectively turn our energy systems, manufacturing, defense, livelihoods and living standards over to China. 

Chinese computer chips are in countless products – and Trojan horse viruses or backdoors for hackers could enable steady information theft, take over GPS systems or crash electrical grids. Minerals, metals and components essential for aircraft, night vision goggles, computers, wind turbines, solar panels, rechargeable batteries, electric vehicles and other technologies are sourced directly from China or through Chinese companies that conduct horrific mining operations in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Supplies of these materials or products could easily be restricted or cut off amid trade or other conflicts. 

Incredibly, America has nearly all the metals and minerals needed to manufacture these products, and many more. However, because of unrelenting environmentalist and Democrat opposition to exploration and mining, the nation’s vast, mineral-rich federal lands (worth many trillions of dollars) remain off limits and undeveloped, forcing the United States to import the vast majority of its essential raw materials

In fact, America is needlessly 100% dependent on imports for 35 “critical” minerals and metals that are needed for defense, aerospace, transportation, communication, “renewable” energy and healthcare technologies – including 15 different rare earth elements (REEs). At least 25 of them come from China. Another half dozen come from Russia. Not one is renewable, clean, green, cheap or sustainable. 

That means America imports nearly two-thirds of its critical minerals and metals from adversaries and enemies! Amazingly, although the United States once led the world in producing REEs, China now makes 95% of all the world’s rare earth metals, using technologies that the U.S. gave them – for free. 

Thin-film solar panels require indium and tellurium, to convert the sun’s rays to electricity. Making solar panels also requires lead, cadmium, copper, gallium, silver, polyvinyl fluoride, and other materials and chemicals. Just building the 500 square miles of solar panels that Dominion Energy Virginia is planning would involve some 5,000,000 pounds of cadmium and enormous amounts of these other materials. 

A single 2-megawatt wind turbine requires some 3.5 tons of copper to generate and transmit electricity – plus 900 tons of steel, 2,500 tons of concrete, 45 tons of non-recyclable plastic composites, several tons of rare earth elements, and many tons of manganese, cobalt, aluminum and other metals and minerals. 

Magnets in hybrid gas-electric vehicle motors require dysprosium and neodymium, while a single 100-kilowatt-hour Tesla rechargeable battery pack (for all-electric vehicles and backup power systems) requires 140 pounds of lithium, large amounts of cobalt, nickel, graphite, aluminum and copper, and smaller amounts of manganese and rare earth metals. The raw material demands go on and on.  

Multiply these requirements by the tens of thousands of offshore wind turbines, millions of onshore turbines, billions of solar panels and billions of 1,200-pound battery packs that would be needed under the Green New Deal – and the demand for raw materials would translate into unimaginable increases in mining around the world. It would also bring unsustainable global ecological impacts, enormous increases in global fossil fuel use and emissions, indefensible reliance on Chinese (and Russian) raw material and finished product imports, and vastly more slave and child labor and human rights violations around the world. 

Transformers, smart grid control systems, electric vehicles and thousands of miles of additional transmission lines under the GND would add even more to the increases in raw materials demand. Modern civilizations also need numerous other metals: arsenic for microwave communications, fluorspar for aluminum and steel production and uranium processing, gallium for LEDs and cell phones, graphite for rechargeable batteries, scandium for lightweight alloys and fuel cells, bismuth for pharmaceuticals and lead-free solders, antimony for lead-acid batteries and flame retardants, and countless others. 

It bears repeating: Almost every one of these essential materials could be mined and processed domestically. But instead many are 100% imported, mostly from China. Many Americans’ disdain for mining and manufacturing means US energy, jobs, living standards, health and national security will be almost entirely dependent on China, Russia and other countries that are not exactly friendly or reliable. 

One thing is certain. Unlike US technologies and intellectual property that are constantly at risk of theft by China – there is absolutely nothing about US mineral resource policies that the CCP would ever want to copy, much less steal! And the Chinese certainly have no interest in copying our pollution control, mined land reclamation, wildlife protection, workplace safety, fair wage, child labor or human rights laws. 

Sadly, not one of these realities seems to merit even a moment’s consideration by GND proponents.