A giant mystery: 18 strange giant skeletons found in Wisconsin: Sons of god; Men of renown

Here’s one for your “Forbidden Archaeology” file.Scientists are remaining stubbornly silent about a lost race of giants found in burial mounds near Lake Delavan, Wisconsin, in May 1912. The dig site at Lake Delavan was overseen by Beloit College and it included more than 200 effigy mounds that proved to be classic examples of 8th century Woodland Culture. But the enormous size of the skeletons and elongated skulls found in May 1912 did not fit very neatly into anyone’s concept of a textbook standard. They were enormous. These were not average human beings.

Strange Skulls

First reported in the 4 May 1912 issue of the New York Times the 18 skeletons found by the Peterson brothers on Lake Lawn Farm in southwest Wisconsin exhibited several strange and freakish features.

Their heights ranged between 7.6ft and 10 feet and their skulls “presumably those of men, are much larger than the heads of any race which inhabit America to-day.” They tend to have a double row of teeth, 6 fingers, 6 toes and like humans came in differant races. The teeth in the front of the jaw are regular molars. Heads usually found are elongated believed due to longer than normal life span.

” One must wonder how much can they lift if twice the size of a average human today? Are these the Giants the Bible & many other civilizations have in their history and painted on their walls. The Bible in Genisis 6:4 ” There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old men of renown. ” Now this is faulty logic to any scientist out there because I am using religous/cultural history to fill a hole in science.

Over 200 Giant digs have been found in recent years. Giant skeleton finds have not made the local/national news since the 1950’s for the most part. It seems in most peoples opinion do to the fear that people would question evolution . If anything a de-evolution.

In 2002, National Geographic reported a dozen Cyclops skeletons found in Greece that stood 12-15 1/2 Ft tall. That is 3 humans tall. One eye socket. Giants in history are typically cannibalistic in nature. The reason why I am bringing up giants will all tie into politics, and word happenings. Look at a basketball hoop and add 5 feet. That tall. Greek Mythology talks about war with cyclops learning they had to bring down by taking out their legs rendering them slow and helpless. American Giants (Red Hair Giants) where found with egyptian writing on their tombs have been found in multiple locations.

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Mystery of The Wisconsin Giants

Was this some sort of prank, a hoax played by local farm boys or a demented taxidermist for fun and the attention of the press? The answer is no.

The Lake Delavan find of May 1912 was only one of dozens and dozens of similar finds that were reported in local newspapers from 1851 forward to the present day. It was not even the first set of giant skeletons found in Wisconsin.

On 10 August 1891, the New York Times reported that scientists from the Smithsonian Institution had discovered several large “pyramidal monuments” on Lake Mills, near Madison, Wisconsin. “Madison was in ancient days the centre of a teeming population numbering not less than 200,000,” the Times said. The excavators found an elaborate system of defensive works which they named Fort Aztalan.

“The celebrated mounds of Ohio and Indiana can bear no comparison, either in size, design or the skill displayed in their construction with these gigantic and mysterious monuments of earth — erected we know not by whom, and for what purpose we can only conjecture,” said the Times.

On 20 December 1897, the Times followed up with a report on three large burial mounds that had been discovered in Maple Creek, Wisconsin. One had recently been opened.

“In it was found the skeleton of a man of gigantic size. The bones measured from head to foot over nine feet and were in a fair state of preservation. The skull was as large as a half bushel measure. Some finely tempered rods of copper and other relics were lying near the bones.”

Giant skulls and skeletons of a race of “Goliaths” have been found on a very regular basis throughout the Midwestern states for more than 100 years. Giants have been found in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and New York, and their burial sites are similar to the well-known mounds of the Mound Builder people.

The spectrum of Mound builder history spans a period of more than 5,000 years (from 3400 BCE to the 16th CE), a period greater than the history of Ancient Egypt and all of its dynasties.

There is a “prevailing scholarly consensus” that we have an adequate historical understanding of the peoples who lived in North America during this period. However, the long record of anomalous finds like those at Lake Delavan suggests otherwise.

The Great Smithsonian Cover-Up

Has there been a giant cover-up? Why aren’t there public displays of gigantic Native American skeletons at natural history museums?

The skeletons of some Mound Builders are certainly on display. There is a wonderful exhibit, for example, at the Aztalan State Park where one may see the skeleton of a “Princess of Aztalan” in the museum.

But the skeletons placed on display are normal-sized, and according to some sources, the skeletons of giants have been covered up.

Specifically, the Smithsonian Institution has been accused of making a deliberate effort to hide the “telling of the bones” and to keep the giant skeletons locked away.

In the words of Vine Deloria, a Native American author and professor of law:

“Modern day archaeology and anthropology have nearly sealed the door on our imaginations, broadly interpreting the North American past as devoid of anything unusual in the way of great cultures characterized by a people of unusual demeanor. The great interloper of ancient burial grounds, the nineteenth century Smithsonian Institution, created a one-way portal, through which uncounted bones have been spirited. This door and the contents of its vault are virtually sealed off to anyone, but government officials. Among these bones may lay answers not even sought by these officials concerning the deep past.”

Two Giant Skeletons Near Potosi, WI

The January 13th, 1870 edition of the Wisconsin Decatur Republican reported that two giant, well-preserved skeletons of an unknown race were discovered near Potosi, WI by workers digging the foundation of a saw mill near the bank of the Mississippi river. One skeleton measured seven-and-a-half feet, the other eight feet. The skulls of each had prominent cheek bones and double rows of teeth. A large collection of arrowheads and “strange toys” were found buried with the remains.

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Giant Skeleton Discovered in Maple Creek, WI

On December 20th, 1897 the New York Times reported that three large burial mounds had been discovered near Maple Creek, WI. Upon excavation, a skeleton measuring over nine feet from head to toe was discovered with finely tempered copper rods and other relics.

Giant Skeleton in West Bend, WI

A giant skeleton was unearthed outside of West Bend near Lizard Mound County Park and assembled by local farmers to a height of eight feet. More about this can be found in Washington County Paranormal: A Wisconsin Legend Trip by local author and investigator J. Nathan Couch.

While a normal-sized skeleton of a supposed mound builder (the “Princess of Aztalan”) is on display at the site of several large pyramidal monuments near Madison called Aztalan State Park, the goliath remains of Wisconsin’s giants have vanished along with the hundreds of others discovered throughout the midwest.

Many have accused the Smithsonian Institution of covering up these discoveries, locking the giant skeletons away and depriving the public of their findings.

Why Hollywood is dead

Hollywood has no problem being dumb, sleazy and violent. Those are all known and marketable qualities. What it does not look is appearing desperate. Desperation however is what the Oscars of this year and last year have in common. They stink of an industry desperately racing its own age and irrelevance reaching for gimmicks to try and hang on to a younger audience.

The dirty little secret is that Hollywood hardly exists anymore. The industry is bigger than ever, but its bread and butter consists of 200 and 300 million dollar special effects festivals filmed in front of green screens and created in Photoshop and three-dimensional graphics programs. They star obscure or mildly famous actors and they do two-thirds of their business abroad.

America is still the official headquarters of the global entertainment industry, but many of the bigger projects are filmed internationally with foreign money and intended for foreign markets. What the American corporations bring to the table is the intellectual property which is why the latest spasm of mergers and buyouts has focused on taking control of every treasury of classic marketable properties.

Disney has put Star Wars, Mickey and Marvel Comics under one roof. It’s impressive from a business standpoint, but bankrupt from a creative standpoint. Old Americana is being milked dry for the sake of turning out another disposable movie starring familiar characters. The movies are actually still the same.

The blockbuster has mutated into its final stage. The “individual” movie is almost dead. Forget Jaws or Raiders of the Lost Ark. The modern blockbuster is seamless and soulless. An impersonal work that renders the director and cast irrelevant. The criticism has been made before, but what is new now is the percentage of special effects and the cost. The more expensive a movie becomes, the more risk averse its producers are.

If a movie is going to cost 200 million dollars to make, then it has to be identical to the other 200 million dollar movies that were profitable. The template is there. All that’s left is to plug in another talented Korean, British, Russian or even perhaps American director, and then roll out the same movie with characters from another property.

The movie must have collapsing skyscrapers, massive explosions and a few slumming character actors. What it cannot have is too much dialogue or plot, because those don’t translate well. How a movie will play in Topeka or even Los Angeles doesn’t matter nearly as much as how it will play in Beijing, Moscow and everywhere else.

Hollywood makes movies on the side. What it really does is manufacture special effects theme parks for other countries whose own entertainment industries are not yet ready for prime time. And the types of movies that it makes can be made nearly anywhere. And will eventually be made anywhere. Tinseltown is pretending to be artistic and creative, even while both qualities are dead as doornails.

These days Hollywood resembles the decline of the British film industry, kept alive by state subsidies and used as a talent base for other countries. At some point, American actors and directors will move on to next conglomeration of capital and audiences in Asia, the way that British actors and directors moved on to Hollywood. The next Hollywood will speak Mandarin. Its executives will buy up American properties and film them in China. The casts will be diverse, the plots will not exist and every movie will be mostly the same. In other words it will be exactly like Hollywood is now.

The blockbuster of 2025 will be Made in China. It will feature 1. Aliens 2. Robots. 3. Buildings collapsing. It will have a pro-China message, but the Western writers hired to insert some topical dialogue for Western audiences will throw in a few relevant lines for the version that is released here. The Indian, Russian and South American writers will do the same thing for their versions.

Hollywood will become the American distribution arm of a new global film industry that can make the same bad movies more cheaply and easily. Its executives will recommend properties for the head office in Beijing to buy up. Occasionally they may even be allowed to make some of their own movies. There will be plenty of nostalgia and the usual tawdry independent movies funded by taxpayer subsidies that you can find in Europe’s own buggy whip movie industries.

The big wheels of the industry already know this. But they don’t have much of a choice. Hollywood has been frantically chasing the youth market with each new incarnation of entertainment technology. Hollywood spent decades making movies bashing television for competing with it for its audience. Eventually the electronics companies that fielded the first television networks dumped their products into the same pool as the movie studios, but by then the internet had begun to take off. And all the movies demonizing the internet haven’t done anything to stop it.

The movie/television/comic book conglomerates are competing for younger audiences against video games and the internet. And the internet is winning. The median age for most of the entertainment industry’s products is old. Some of that can be attributed to demographic collection technologies that rely too much on traditional viewership, but much of it is just reality. Hollywood may bring in James Franco or the creator of Family Guy to host its industry party, but that doesn’t change how old it is.

The entertainment industry dumbed down its products to the lowest common denominator to target the teenager. And in the process the entertainment industry destroyed itself. Television networks killed family hour to chase upscale twenty-somethings and wiped out their own viewership. Their big brothers destroyed the movie theater by making it indistinguishable from an amusement park ride. The television network model killed networks and the cable networks that adopted that same model are about to get whacked by the collapse of the cable bundle business model. The movie model made the movie easy to reproduce by any country with enough capital and digital artists. These days that’s the People’s Republic of China.

Hollywood movies are already being made to Chinese specifications, complete with Communist censorship, and that’s only the beginning. If China’s economy does not collapse, then it will become the tail that wags the Hollywood dog. And Hollywood will be history.

The death of Hollywood would have been a tragedy once, but these days it’s almost a relief. It leaves behind a lot of great movies, almost all of them made in the past, and the best proof of that is the compulsive flood of remakes, reboots and reinventions of old properties. The spirit of the industry is gone and all that’s left is a shambling zombie picking over its own brains and living off past glories while throwing elaborate industry parties that are little more than an expensive glorified reality show.

Hollywood is still chasing relevance and the youth market. The theater conglomerates are figuring out new ways to squeeze twenty bucks out of customers in a bad economy to cover their own expenses which include revamping their theaters for youth-oriented gimmicks like 3D. But the problem is that in an economy where the under 20 and 30 crowd is out of work, those gimmicks are struggling to pay for themselves. Add in the high levels of unemployment among minority young males, who are the industry’s best customers, and the picture looks even bleaker.

The Chinese kid has some money to spend after getting through a long shift of making iPads or grinding for virtual money in an online game. American kids have less money than they used to and the internet offers entertainment, including the latest pirated movies, for free, often offered by sites run by some of those same Chinese kids.

In this solipsistic environment, does the movie theater even have a future? How much room is there for a business model built around digital entertainment that doesn’t run on the internet? Despite the billion-dollar grosses, theater owners are not entirely certain. There’s a reason that a thimble’s worth of soda and popcorn is so expensive and it’s not because movie theaters are doing well. It’s because everyone is behind and running up debt.

Movie studios throw fortunes into mediocre blockbusters and then spend the next three years wrangling over the profits, and cheating everyone from the director to the stars to their distributing partners of their fair share. Movie theaters pay out most of the money from the opening weekends to the studios and count on extended engagements to make money, but the modern blockbuster is one opening weekend after another with no extended engagements.

Everyone is deep in debt and counting on a string of hits to bring in audiences and save their business model. Everyone is merging and clustering together to limit the risk, while increasing the drag.

There’s no future in that and Hollywood knows it. The industry is locking down intellectual properties because it knows that it’s about to turn into Kodak after the digital revolution. An outdated business with nothing to offer except its rights to certain properties that more successful industries will want to make use of.

Hollywood is dead, but its corpse is still trying to carry on with business as usual. The inventive industry that mixed together vaudeville and adventure books into an entire industry that spanned the globe has long ago run out of ideas. Instead it’s marking the time, deadening its nerves and doing everything it can to appear youthful. The parties are still being thrown as if the industry has not changed, as if it’s still a band of salesmen and theater owners who opened their own studios and made and lost fortunes betting on geniuses and big concepts.

What we think of as Hollywood was a byproduct of the need to fill theaters, but the technology of filling theaters is being broken down on a more sophisticated level, without the need for creativity. What the big computers did to Wall Street, they are also doing to Hollywood. The future isn’t a silver screen, it’s a behavioral map of the most reliable ways of getting the industry’s best customers into a theater to watch a product created in slave-labor countries based on templates that run on numbers, not creativity, even of the three-act kind.

Hollywood’s past glories may live on as nostalgia, but it has no future. The industry is history.

six new Fast Radio Bursts

Astronomy experts with the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico have discovered six new Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) emitting from a region far beyond our Milky Way galaxy, according to a recent report in the Astrophysical Journal.

We don’t know whether aliens will come in peace – or to kill every single living being on our planet

World’s largest fully steerable radio telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia

The discovery — made in the direction of the Auriga constellation — has prompted wild speculation that aliens could be trying to get in touch.

It is significant considering the fact that at least 17 FRBs have now been detected in this area and is the only known instance in which these signals have been found twice in the same location in space.

The region where the signals are coming from, dubbed FRB 121102 by scientists, is located about 3 billion light years away from earth.

Five of the recently found FRBs were detected with the Green Bank Telescope, while the other was recorded by the Arecibo Observatory, “for a total of 17 bursts from this source,” the report says.

The signals were also found earlier this year and in 2012.

According to experts, the FRBs could be the result of two things: solar flares from a neutron star or extra-terrestrials. But it’s still too early to tell.

The confirmed detection of alien signals would be one of the the biggest discoveries in human history


“Whether FRB 121102 is a unique object in the currently known sample of FRBs, or all FRBs are capable of repeating, its characterisation is extremely important to understanding fast extragalactic radio transients,” the scientists write in their report.

In 2015, physicist John Learned — with the University of Hawaii at Manoa — and Michael Hippke, with the Institute for Data Analysis, published a research paper arguing that repeating FRB waves had a 1 in 2,000 chance of being coincidental.

They claimed the radio bursts either came from a man-made spy satellite or a super-dense star, which would regularly emit bursts of radio waves.

Earlier this year, a team of astronomers from Laval University in Quebec published a report saying they had detected strange signals in a small cluster of stars.

Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the pair analysed the spectra of 2.5 million different stars and discovered at least 234 that were producing the signals.

“We find that the detected signals have exactly the shape of an ETI [extraterrestrial intelligence] signal,” wrote Borra and Trottier. “Although unlikely…there is also a possibility that the signals are due to highly peculiar chemical compositions in a small fraction of galactic halo stars.”

Earlier in 20156, genius scientist Stephen Hawking said humanity must seek out intelligent life before it finds us – or we could be wiped out.

Hawking, 74, says a technologically advanced alien race could send our vulnerable race the way of the dodo if we’re not careful.

Why DVDs are still popular

  1. People weren’t ready to move on from DVD to Blu-ray. DVDs started to be used for Films between 1995 and 1999, depending on where in the world you live. Blu-ray was introduced by 2006. Many people by this point, had started to build up a large collection of films, and IMO felt rather annoyed by technology moving on to a new disk format so quickly.
  2. Between 2006-2008 there was a small battle between Blu-ray and HD DVD (mainly fought between the Playstation 3 and the XBOX 360), to which format would be THE high definition format to prevail. Many people, outside of console gamers, were reluctant to purchase a dedicated Blu-ray or HD DVD player due to uncertainty over which would win. Nobody wanted to be left with useless technology and film collection they would be unable to use.
  3. The difference in definition between Blu-ray and DVD isn’t all that great, to the average viewer. Especially when viewed on smaller TVs. It does’t improve the enjoyment of a film for most people, especially when faced with the prospect of re-purchasing your back catalogue in a new format, which, incidentally, will also cost more than the DVD version.
  4. By this point, many people also had MULTIPLE DVD players in the home. Most people would be reluctant to replace all these. Even if you brought one Blu-ray player for the living room, when purchasing a new film, would you buy one which you can view on ONE of your pieces of tech, or ALL of them?
  5. Steaming technology harms Blu-rays chances of replacing DVDs further. Most people who avoided using Blu-ray in the early days, suddenly saw yet another change in how media content would be delivered to us at home. It made more sense to just start consuming SOME content on-line and the rest through their existing DVDs
  6. LEGAL streaming services actually have quite a limited number of titles available. New releases are often delayed compared to the physical media releases. Combine this with the above points, and you’re left with quite a number of people who will be purchasing these films on DVD.
  7. In my experience, finding older, and more obscure/world cinema, is often hard, or impossible on Blu-ray or through streaming services, meaning that its easier, or in some cases, only available on DVD.
  8. Purchasing a Blu-ray player, now, seems a little pointless if you don’t already own one, since streaming will only improve and increase in popularity in the coming years. But…
  9. Many people still like owning a physical disk.
  10. I have seen on multiple occasions where a friend will put in a Blu-Ray disc only to be told that the Blu-ray player needs a firmware upgrade to play the movie. 

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1. UFOevidence.org has an excellent collection of UFO case files and close encounters with Aliens and Extraterrestrials and Real M.I.B.

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3. Speaking of Real M.I.B, we own a Real M.I.B YouTube Channel Here.

4. The Mothman is 100% Real. It is just one species of Extraterrestrials of many species of Extraterrestrials. See Video Part 1, and Video Part 2. You will find out it has red eyes and can semi-hypnotize people. And it loves to feed on blood. And it’s cruel treatment of Humans reminds us of this intelligence data… QUOTE:The first way was chosen by a group of races motivated by keeping mankind in slavery, thereby controlling Earth resources, the gene pool, and human emotional energy.
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QUOTE: Until recently, mankind lived a satisfying control of its decisions. But it is losing more and more the control of its own fate because of the growing use of advanced technologies, which lethal consequences on the earthly and human ecosystems become irreversible. You are slowly but surely losing your extraordinary capacity to make life desirable. Your resilience will artificially decrease, independently of your own will. Such technologies exist that affect your body as well as your mind. Such plans are on their way.

QUOTE:Translate and spread this message widely. This action will affect your future in an irreversible and historical way at the scale of milleniums, otherwise, it will postpone a new opportunity to choose to several years later, at least one generation, if it can survive.



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President Dwight Eisenhower’s secret treaty in February 21, 1954

President Dwight Eisenhower held a secret meeting with extraterrestrial visitors during the early hours of February 21, 1954, while on a “vacation” to Palm Springs in California, according to UFO and alien conspiracy theorists.

He went “missing” after he was whisked away secretly to Edwards Air Force Base and was not seen until he appeared at a church service in Los Angeles the next Sunday morning.

The official explanation of his mysterious “disappearance” was that he had to undergo an emergency dental surgery.

The abrupt disappearance of the president was so unusual that it fueled speculation about an illness or death in the media. The speculation became so intense that the rumors had to be dispelled by the president’s press secretary, James Haggerty, who told incredulous reporters at a press conference that Eisenhower had damaged a tooth cap while eating fried chicken and had to undergo emergency surgery.

A local dentist was later presented to reporters who claimed he had treated Eisenhower.

But strange rumors began spreading following information leaked by well-placed sources. The rumors alleged that the local dentist was used to provide Eisenhower with a cover story while he rendezvoused secretly with the extraterrestrial visitors at the Edwards Air Force Base.

Significantly, there are no records at the Eisenhower Library — which reportedly has extensive records related to Eisenhower’s health — that he ever underwent dental surgery in February 1954, according to UFO researcher William Moore.

Eisenhower thus became the first American president to have direct contact with extraterrestrials, according to conspiracy theorists. The meeting took place at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California during the early hours of February 21 in 1954. It was the first in a series of meetings that culminated in the signing of a treaty between the U.S. government and an extraterrestrial race called the Greys.

The First Contact meeting, as it is termed in UFO conspiracy theory circles, involved some intrigue. Eisenhower’s secret First Contact meeting on February 21, 1954, is believed to have been with the Nordic aliens, also known as Pleiadian aliens, an advanced extraterrestrial race from the Pleiades star cluster with distinctive Nordic appearance, such as fair hair, blue eyes, and white skin.

The two sides were unable to reach an agreement on the night of the First Contact, and the Greys took advantage of the failure by offering more favorable terms. The offer by the Greys allegedly led to the first treaty between humans and an extraterrestrial race.

According to UFO conspiracy theorists, several pieces of circumstantial evidence add up to support claims that the Eisenhower administration held “First Contact” meetings with extraterrestrial beings. The first circumstantial evidence was the awkward manner in which Eisenhower “disappeared” during the night of February 20-21 in the midst of an unscheduled winter vacation in Palm Springs, California, and the clumsy efforts by officials to explain his disappearance.

One of the first eyewitness testimonies came from Gerald Light, a writer and leading member of the community dedicated to metaphysical research. A letter circulated widely in the UFO and alien conspiracy community, dated April 16, 1954, is alleged to have been written by Gerald Light to Meade Layne, Director of Borderland Sciences Research Foundation. In the letter (see copy here), Light allegedly claimed to have been one of a group of community leaders who was present at the First Contact meeting with extraterrestrials at Edwards Air Force Base.

The group of “community leaders” included Edwin Nourse, President’s Truman’s chief economic adviser, Cardinal James Francis MacIntyre, head of the Catholic Church in Los Angeles at the time, and 80-year-old Franklin Winthrop Allen, a former reporter with Hearst Newspaper Group.

Light claimed in the letter he allegedly wrote to Layne that he recently returned from Muroc Airfield (now Edward Air Force Base). The letter contains a single reference to “Etherians” (presumed to be the aliens), and it includes a comment about “five separate and distinct types of aircraft being studied and handled by our Air Force officials — with the assistance and permission of the Etherians!”

The aircraft are believed to be alien UFOs stored at the facility for reverse-engineering studies.

The letter gives a vivid description of the bewilderment, confusion, and panic among the officials present at the meeting. UFO conspiracy theorists claim that Light’s account reveals uncertainty about how to respond to the aliens and fears due to the Cold War that the aliens could turn to the Soviets if the Americans spurned them.

But it is claimed that Eisenhower finally decided to reject the proposals of the Nordic aliens he met at the First Contact meeting at the Edwards Air Force Base in February 1954, and his administration eventually signed a treaty with the Greys, who offered to transfer their technology exclusively to the United States.

Several whistle-blowers claimed to have seen documents signed at the meetings while others claimed they obtained information from inside sources. The different versions of what allegedly transpired at the First Contact meetings leaked by the whistle-blowers agree on certain major points but differ in specific details.

One of the best-known whistle-blowers, William Cooper, a former Naval intelligence officer who allegedly had access to classified documents, claimed that the First Contact meeting at the Edward Air Force Base in February 1954 was the culmination of a series of events after astronomers discovered a fleet of huge UFOs approaching Earth in 1953. First mistaken for asteroids, they were later determined to be spaceships.

Alien radio signals were allegedly intercepted under Project Sigma just before the UFOs went into high orbit. Project Plato was launched to receive the aliens and hold talks.

But before the aliens approaching in a huge UFO fleet landed, a different alien race contacted the U.S government and warned against the first group of aliens. But talks with the first group failed after they demanded nuclear disarmament and warned that humanity was on a path to self-destruction. They proposed instead to help humans to develop along a peaceful path to spiritual fulfillment.

Because the primary interest of the U.S. government at the time was signing a treaty that gives access to advanced alien technology, the Eisenhower administration rejected the overtures from the first alien group — the Nordic aliens — during the First Contact meeting at the Edwards Air Base and agreed to sign a treaty with the second group — the Greys — during a subsequent meeting at the Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico in 1954.

Elements of the sketchy account given by Cooper were allegedly confirmed independently by other whistle-blowers, including Charles Suggs, a former retired U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant, who claimed that his father, a senior naval officer, had attended the First Contact meeting with the Nordic aliens in February 1954.

John Lear, another independent whistle-blower, was a former air force pilot and the son of William Lear, who built the Lear Jet. Lear also confirmed that two alien races had been involved in the First Contact meetings.
Grey aliens with an abductee

Robert Dean, a former intelligence officer, described Nordic aliens as humanoids with Nordic features, and the Greys as tall humanoids up to 9 feet tall with pale white skin, large eyes, large head, and spindly limbs.

Greys allegedly originated from a star in the constellation of Orion. Other reports claimed they came from a planet in the star system Zeta Reticuli.

Details of the agreement with the Greys leaked by whistle-blowers include non-interference in human affairs in exchange for accommodation on Earth under conditions of secrecy. In return, they would furnish the U.S. government with advanced technology to help the country to stay ahead of enemy nations. The Greys also agreed they would not approach any other nation to make a treaty.

The Greys were housed in an underground facility in Dulce where Phil Schneider claimed he encountered them while working as a geological engineer employed by a private company contracted to build underground bases for the Greys.

Schneider revealed that part of the treaty agreement allowed the Greys to abduct a very limited number of humans for medical research and experiments. But the Greys proved untrustworthy and violated the agreement on abductions.

Most reports of UFO sightings and stories of abductions involved Greys freely violating the treaty with the government, according to UFO conspiracy theorists.

ZETA 2 RETICULI (Grey’s home)

The Betty Hill Star Map
The names of the stars were not on the map that Betty Hill remembered.  In addition, if names were provided, they would have been names given by the alien race, not names used on Earth.  Therefore, unless the aliens had pointed out where our Sun was on the map, even the most trained astronomer would have had no idea which stars were which on the map.
As you will see later, it took Ms. Marjorie Fish much time and effort to finally come up with a possible star map based upon the assumption that the origin of the map would be the aliens’ home star (solar) system.  That certainly is a reasonable assumption.  If we were the astronauts visiting another solar system and we had a three-dimensional star map aboard our starship, our own Sun would be the origin of our star map.
Betty and Barney are returned unharmed to their car.  They are told they will forget the abduction portion of the incident.  The ship rises, and then hurtles out of sight.  The couple continue their journey home oblivious of the abduction.
But the Hills are troubled by unexplained dreams and anxiety about two hours of their trip that they can’t account for.  Betty, a social worker, asks advice from a psychiatrist friend.  He suggests that the memory of that time will be gradually restored over the next few months — but it never is.  Two years after the incident, the couple are still bothered by the missing two hours, and Barney’s ulcers are acting up.  A Boston psychiatrist, Benjamin Simon, is recommended, and after several months of weekly hypnosis sessions the bizarre events of that night in 1961 are revealed.  A short time later a UFO group leaks a distorted version of the story to the press and the whole thing blows up.  The Hills reluctantly disclose the entire story.
Can we take this dramatic scenario seriously?  Did this incredible contact with aliens actually occur or is it some kind of hallucination that affected both Barney and Betty Hill?  The complete account of the psychiatric examination from which the details of the event emerged is related in John G. Fuller’s “The Interrupted Journey” (Dial Press, 1966), where we read that after the extensive psychiatric examination, Simon concluded that the Hills were not fabricating the story.  The most likely possibilities seem to be:
(a) the experience actually happened, or
(b) some perceptive and illusory misinterpretations occurred in relationship to some real event
There are other cases of alleged abductions by extraterrestrial humanoids.  The unique aspect of the Hills’ abduction is that they remembered virtually nothing of the incident.
Intrigued by the Hills’ experience, J. Allen Hynek, chairman of the department of astronomy at Northwestern University, decided to investigate.  Hynek described how the Hills recalled the details of their encounter in his book, “The UFO Experience” (Henry Regnery Company, 1972):
“Under repeated hypnosis they independently revealed what had supposedly happened.  The two stories agreed in considerable detail, although neither Betty nor Barney was privy to what the other had said under hypnosis until much later.  Under hypnosis they stated that they had been taken separately aboard the craft, treated well by the occupants — rather as humans might treat experimental animals — and then released after having been given the hypnotic suggestion that they would remember nothing of that particular experience.  The method of their release supposedly accounted for the amnesia, which was apparently broken only by counterhypnosis.”
A number of scientists, including Hynek, have discussed this incident at length with Barney and Betty Hill and have questioned them under hypnosis.  They concur with Simon’s belief that there seems to be no evidence of outright fabrication or lying.  One would also wonder what Betty, who has a master’s degree in social work and is a supervisor in the New Hampshire Welfare Department, and Barney, who was on the governor of New Hampshire’s Civil Rights Commission, would have to gain by a hoax?  Although the Hills didn’t, several people have lost their jobs after being associated with similarly unusual publicity.
Stanton T. Friedman, a nuclear physicist and the nation’s only space scientist devoting full time to researching the UFO phenomenon, has spent many hours in conversation with the Hills.
“By no stretch of the imagination could anyone who knows them conclude that they were nuts,” he emphasizes.
Hill, Fish, and Computer Star MapsSo the experience remains a fascinating story despite the absence of proof that it actually happened.  Anyway — that’s where things were in 1966 when Ms. Marjorie Fish, an Ohio schoolteacher, amateur astronomer and member of Mensa, became involved.  She wondered if the objects shown on the map that Betty Hill allegedly observed inside the vehicle might represent some actual pattern of celestial objects.  To get more information about the map she decided to visit Betty Hill in the summer of 1969 (Barney Hill died in early 1969).  Here is Ms. Fish’s account of that meeting:
“On Aug.4, 1969, Betty Hill discussed the star map with me.  Betty explained that she drew the map in 1964 under post-hypnotic suggestion.  It was to be drawn only if she could remember it accurately, and she was not to pay attention to what she was drawing — which puts it in the realm of automatic drawing.  This is a way of getting at repressed or forgotten material and can result in unusual accuracy.  She made two erasures showing her conscious mind took control part of the time.
Betty described the map as three-dimensional, like looking through a window.  The stars were tinted and glowed.  The map material was flat and thin (not a model), and there were no noticeable lenticular lines like one of our three-dimensional processes (it sounds very much like a reflective hologram).  Betty did not shift her position while viewing it, so we cannot tell if it would give the same three-dimensional view from all positions or if it would be completely three-dimensional.  Betty estimated the map was approximately three feet wide and two feet high with the pattern covering most of the map.  She was standing about three feet away from it.
She said there were many other stars on the map but she only (apparently) was able to specifically recall the prominent ones connected by lines and a small distinctive triangle off to the left.  There was no concentration of stars to indicate the Milky Way (galactic plane) suggesting that if it represented reality, it probably only contained local stars.  There were no grid lines.”
So much for the background material on the Hill incident (if you want more details on the encounter, see Fuller’s book).  For the moment we will leave Marjorie Fish back in 1969 trying to interpret Betty Hill’s reproduction of the map.  There is a second major area of background information that we have to attend to before we can properly discuss the map.  Unlike the bizarre events just described, the rest is pure astronomy.
According to the most recent star catalogs, there are about 1,000 known stars within a radius of 55 light-years of the Sun.  What are those other stars like?  A check of the catalogs shows that most of them are faint stars of relatively low temperature — a class of stars astronomers call main sequence stars.  The Sun is a main sequence star along with most of the other stars in this part of the Milky Way galaxy, as the following table shows:
Main Sequence Stars
White Dwarfs
Giants and Supergiants
Typical giant stars are Arcturus and CapellaAntares and Betelgeuse are members of the ultra-rare supergiant class.  At the other end of the size and brightness scale the white dwarfs are stellar cinders — the remains of once brilliant suns — a perfect example is Sirius B, the white dwarf companion to the brilliant Sirius A seen in the constellation Canis Major.  For reasons that will soon become clear we can remove these classes of stars from our discussion and concentrate on the main sequence stars whose characteristics are shown in the table.
Characteristics of Main Sequence Stars
Star Spectral Class
Proportion of Stars
Surface Temperature
Star Mass
(Sun = 1.0)
Star Luminosity
(Sun = 1.0)
(Billions of Years)
Example Star
1%  A0 – A9
3%  F0 – F9
Procyon A
9%  G0 – G9
Alpha Centauri A
14%  K0 – K9
Alpha Centauri B
Epsilon Eridani
61 Cygni A
73%  M0 – M9
Proxima Centauri
(Alpha Centauri C)
The spectral class letters are part of a system of stellar “fingerprinting” that identifies the main sequence star’s temperature and gives clues to its mass and luminosity.  The hottest, brightest and most massive main sequence stars (with rare exceptions — the Type O and Type B classes — which are even hotter, brighter, and more massive) are the A stars.  The faintest, coolest and least massive are the M stars.
Each class is subdivided into 10 subcategories.  For example, an A0 star is hotter, brighter and more massive than an A1, which is above an A2, and so on through A9.
This table supplies much additional information and shows how a slightly hotter and more massive star turns out to be much more luminous than the Sun, a G2 star.  But the bright stars pay dearly for their splendor.  It takes a lot of stellar fuel to emit vast quantities of light and heat.  The penalty is a short lifespan as a main sequence star.  Conversely, the inconspicuous, cool M stars may be around to see the end of the universe — whatever that might be.  With all these facts at hand we’re now ready to tackle the first part of the detective story.
Let’s suppose we wanted to make our own map of a trip to the stars.  We will limit ourselves to the 55 light-year radius covered by the detailed star catalogs.  The purpose of the trip will be to search for intelligent life on planets that may be in orbit around these stars.  We would want to include every star that would seem likely to have a life-bearing planet orbiting around it.  How many of these thousand-odd stars would we include for such a voyage and which direction would we go (for the moment, we’ll forget about the problem of making a spacecraft that will take us to these stars and we’ll assume that we’ve got some kind of vehicle that will effortlessly transport us to wherever we want to go)?  We don’t want to waste our time and efforts — we only want to go to stars that we would think would have a high probability of having planets harboring advanced life forms.  This seems like a tall order.  How do we even begin to determine which stars might likely have such planets?
The first rule will be to restrict ourselves to life as we know it, the kind of life that we are familiar with here on Earth — carbon based life.  Science fiction writers are fond of describing life forms based on chemical systems that we have been unable to duplicate here on Earth — such as silicon based life or life based on the ammonium hydroxide molecule instead of on carbon.  But right now these life forms are simply fantasy — we have no evidence that they are in fact possible.  Because we don’t even know what they might look like — if they’re out there — we necessarily have to limit our search to the kind of life that we understand.
Our kind of life — life as we know it — seems most likely to evolve on a planet that has a stable temperature regime.  It must be at the appropriate distance from its sun so that water is neither frozen nor boiled away.  The planet has to be the appropriate size so that its gravity doesn’t hold on to too much atmosphere (like Jupiter) or too little (like Mars).  But the main ingredient in a life-bearing planet is its star.  And its star is the only thing we can study since planets of other stars are far too faint to detect directly.  The conclusion we can draw is this:  The star has to be like the Sun.
An Earthlike planet in the ecosphere of a star similar to our Sun would be hidden in the glare of the star because of its angular separation from the star as viewed from Earth.  If an Earthlike planet was orbiting Alpha Centauri A (4.3 light-years from us) at a distance of 1 Astronomical Unit (Earth-Sun distance), the angular separation between the planet and Alpha Centauri A would be 0.0133 seconds of arc.
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Location of Solar Type Stars
Main sequence stars are basically stable for long periods of time.  As shown in the table, stars in spectral class G have stable lifespans of 10 billion years (Our Sun, actually a G2V star, has a somewhat longer stable life expectancy of 11 billion years).  We are about five billion years into that period so we can look forward to the Sun remaining much as it is (actually it will brighten slightly) for another six billion years.  Stars of class F4 or higher have stable burning periods of less than 3.5 billion years.  They have to be ruled out immediately.  Such stars cannot have life-bearing planets because, at least based on our experience on our world, this is not enough time to permit highly developed biological systems to evolve on the land areas of a planet (Intelligent life may very well arise earlier in water environments, but let’s forget that possibility since we have not yet had meaningful communication with the dolphins — highly intelligent creatures on this planet!).  But we may be wrong in our estimate of life development time.  There is another more compelling reason for eliminating stars of class F4 and brighter.
So far, we have assumed all stars have planets, just as our Sun does.  Yet spectroscopic studies of stars of class F4 and brighter reveal that most of them are in fact unlike our Sun in a vital way — they are rapidly rotating stars.  The Sun rotates once in just under a month, but 60 percent of the stars in the F0 to F4 range rotate much faster.  And almost all A stars are rapid rotators too.  It seems, from recent studies of stellar evolution that slowly rotating stars like the Sun rotate slowly because they have planets.  Apparently the formation of a planetary system robs the star of much of its rotational momentum (because angular momentum of the whole solar system that formed from interstellar gas and debris must be conserved … an analogy is an ice skater that has arms extended as he/she spins, then he/she brings in arms close to the body in order to spin much faster.  For a star with planets, the angular momentum is taken up by the star and its planets. For a star without planets, the angular momentum must be with the star, alone, resulting in much faster star rotation).
For two reasons, then, we eliminate stars of class F4 and above:
  1. Most of them rotate rapidly and thus seem to be planetless, and
  2. Their stable lifespans are too brief for advanced life to develop.
Another problem environment for higher forms of life is the multiple star system.  About half of all stars are born in pairs, or small groups of three or more.  Our Sun could have been part of a double star system.  If Jupiter was 80 times more massive it would be an M6 red dwarf star.  If the stars of a double system are far enough apart there is no real problem for planets sustaining life (see “Planet of the Double Sun,” September 1974).  But stars in fairly close or highly elliptical orbits would alternately fry or freeze their planets.  Such planets would also likely have unstable orbits.  Because this is a potentially troublesome area for our objective, we will eliminate all close and moderately close pairs of systems of multiple stars.
Further elimination is necessary according to the catalogs.  Some otherwise perfect stars are labeled “variable.”  This means astronomers have observed variations of at least a few percent in the star’s light output.  A one percent fluctuation in the Sun would be annoying for us here on Earth.  Anything greater would cause climatic disaster.  Could intelligent life evolve under such conditions, given an otherwise habitable planet?  It seems unlikely.  We are forced to “scratch” all stars suspected or proven to be variable.
This still leaves a few F stars, quite a few G stars, and hoards of K and M dwarfs.  Unfortunately most of the Ks and all of the Ms are out.  Let’s find out why.
These stars quite likely have planets.  Indeed, one M star — known as Barnard’s star — is believed to almost certainly have at least one, and probably two or three, Jupiter sized planets.  Peter Van de Kamp of the Sproul Observatory at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, has watched Barnard’s star for over three decades and is convinced that a “wobbling” motion of that star is due to perturbations (gravitational “pulling and pushing”) caused by its unseen planets (Earth sized planets cannot be detected in this manner).
But the planets of M stars and the K stars below K4 have two serious handicaps that virtually eliminate them from being abodes for life.  First, these stars fry their planets with occasional lethal bursts of radiation emitted from erupting solar flares.  The flares have the same intensity as those of our Sun, but when you put that type of flare on a little star it spells disaster for a planet that is within, say, 30 million miles.  The problem is that planets have to be that close to get enough heat from these feeble suns.  If they are farther out, they have frozen oceans and no life.
The close-in orbits of potential Earthlike planets of M and faint K stars produce the second dilemma — rotational lock.  An example of rotational lock is right next door to us.  The moon, because of its nearness to Earth, is strongly affected by our planet’s tidal forces.  Long ago our satellite stopped rotating and now has one side permanently turned toward Earth.  The same principles apply to planets of small stars that would otherwise be at the right distance for moderate temperatures.  If rotational lock has not yet set in, at least rotational retardation would make impossibly long days and nights (as evidenced by Mercury in our solar system).
What stars are left after all this pruning?  All of the G stars remain along with F5 through F9 and K0 through K4Stephen Dole of the Rand Corporation has made a detailed study of stars in this range and suggests we should also eliminate F5, F6 and F7 stars because they balloon to red giants before they reach an age of five billion years.  Dole feels this is cutting it too fine for intelligent species to fully evolve.  Admittedly this is based on our one example of intelligent life — us.  But limited though this parameter is, it is the only one we have.  Dole believes the K2, K3 and K4 stars are also poor prospects because of their feeble energy output and consequently limited zone for suitable Earthlike planets.
Accepting Dole’s further trimming we are left with single, nonvariable stars from F8 through all the G-type stars to K1.  What does that leave us with?  Forty-six stars.
Now we are ready to plan the trip.  It’s pretty obvious that Tau Ceti is our first target.  After that, the choice is more difficult.  We can’t take each star in order or we would be darting all over the sky.  It’s something like planning a vacation trip.  Let’s say we start from St. Louis and want to hit all the major cities within a 1,000 mile radius.  If we go west, all we can visit is Kansas City and Denver.  But northeast is a bonanza:  Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York and more.  The same principle applies to the planning of our interstellar exploration.  The plot of all 46 candidate stars reveals a clumping in the direction of the constellations Cetus and Eridanus.  Although this section amounts to only 13 percent of the entire sky, it contains 15 of the 46 stars, or 33 percent of the total.  Luckily Tau Ceti is in this group, so that’s the direction we should go (comparable to heading northeast from St. Louis).  If we plan to visit some of these solar type stars and then return to Earth, we should try to have the shortest distance between stops.  It would be a waste of exploration time if we zipped randomly from one star to another.
Now we are ready to return to the map drawn by Betty HillMarjorie Fish reasoned that if the stars in the Hill map corresponded to a patter of real stars — perhaps something like we just developed, only from an alien’s viewpoint — it might be possible to pinpoint the origin of the alleged space travelers.  Assuming the two stars in the foreground of the Hill map were the “base” stars (the Sun, a single star, was ruled out here), she decided to try to locate the entire pattern.  She theorized that the Hill map contained only local stars since no concentration would be present if a more distant viewpoint was assumed and if both “us” and the alien visitors’ home base were to be represented.
Let’s assume, just as an astronomical exercise, that the map does show the Sun and the star that is “the sun” to the humanoids.  We’ll take the Hill encounter at face value, and see where it leads.
Since the aliens were described as “humanoid” and seemed reasonably comfortable on this planet, their home planet should be basically like ours.  Their atmosphere must be similar because the Hills breathed without trouble while inside the ship, and the aliens did not appear to wear any protective apparatus.  And since we assume their biology is similar to ours, their planet should have the same temperature regime as Earth (Betty and Barney did say it was uncomfortably cold in the ship).  In essence, then, we assume their home planet must be very Earthlike.  Based on what we discussed earlier it follows that their sun would be on our list if it were within 55 light-years from us.
The lines on the map, according to Betty Hill, were described by the alien as “trade routes” or “places visited occasionally” with the dotted lines as “expeditions.”  Any interpretation of the Betty Hill map must retain the logic of these routes (i.e. the lines would link stars that would be worth visiting).
Keeping all this in mind, Marjorie Fish constructed several three-dimensional models of the solar neighborhood in hopes of detecting the pattern in the Hill map.  Using beads dangling on threads, she painstakingly recreated our stellar environment.  Between August 1968 and February 1973, she strung beads, checked data, searched and checked again.  A suspicious alignment, detected in late 1968, turned out to be almost a perfect match once new data from the detailed 1969 edition of the Catalog of Nearby Stars became available (this catalog is often called the “Gliese catalog” — pronounced “glee-see” — after its principal author, Wilhelm Gliese).
The following table lists all known stars within a radius of 54 light-years that are single or part of a wide multiple star system.  They have no known irregularities or variabilities and are between 0.4 and 2.0 times the luminosity of the Sun.  Thus, a planet basically identical to Earth could be orbiting around any one of them (Data from the Catalog of Nearby Stars, 1969 edition, by Wilhelm Gliese).
The 46 Nearest Stars Similar to the Sun
Name of Star
Sun = 1.0
Tau Ceti
82 Eridani
Zeta Tucanae
107 Piscium
Beta Coma Berenices
61 Virginis
Alpha Mensae
Gliese 75
Beta Canum Venaticorum
Chi Orionis
54 Piscium
Zeta 1 Reticuli
Zeta 2 Reticuli
Gliese 86
Mu Arae
Gliese 67
Gliese 668.1
Gliese 302
Gliese 309
Kappa Fornacis
58 Eridani
Zeta Doradus
55 Cancri
47 Ursae Majoris
Gliese 364
Gliese 599A
Nu Phoenicis
Gliese 95
Gliese 796
20 Leo Minoris
39 Tauri
Gliese 290
Gliese 59.2
Psi Aurigae
Gliese 722
Gliese 788
Nu 2 Lupi
14 Herculis
Pi Ursae Majoris
Phi 2 Ceti
Gliese 641
Gliese 97.2
Gliese 541.1
109 Piscium
Gliese 651
Gliese 59
The 16 stars in the stellar configuration discovered by Marjorie Fish are compared with the map drawn by Betty Hill in the diagram on page 6.  If some of the star names on the Fish map sound familiar, they should.  Ten of the 16 stars are from the compact group that we selected earlier based on the most logical direction to pursue to conduct interstellar exploration from Earth.  Continuing to take the Hill map at face value, the radiating pattern of “trade routes” implies that Zeta 1 Reticuli and Zeta 2 Reticuli are the “hub” of exploration or, in the context of the incident, the aliens’ home base.  The Sun is at the end of one of the supposedly regular trade routes.
Trade route?  What kind of trade was going on between the Zeta Reticulans and Earthlings?  That raised questions in my mind at the time I read the article back in 1975.  At that time, I was completely unaware of any strange or suspicious activity going on at Nellis Air Force Base Area 51 or S4.  I suspect that such a statement would raise questions in your mind as you read the text.  Remember!
The evaluation to determine the stars on the map was performed by Ms. Marjorie Fish in 1969 and was presented by Terence Dickinson in the December 1974 issue of ASTRONOMY Magazine.  Other documents and the release of Top Secret information much later, that is, in the late 1980s, will reveal that a certain elite sect of the United States Government was dealing with the “Greys” or Zeta Reticulans and knew that they were from the fourth planet orbiting Zeta 2 Reticuli.
These dealings with the Zeta Reticulans may have been taking place since the late 1940s after the saucer crash near Roswell, New Mexico, on July 4, 1947.  Recall that the Army originally announced that a flying saucer had crashed in the desert near Roswell Army Air Field, then recanted the story, stating a military weather balloon had crashed.
The pair of stars that make up Zeta Reticuli is practically in the midst of the cluster of solar type stars that attracted us while we were mapping out a logical interstellar voyage.  Checking further we find that all but two of the stars in the Fish pattern are on the table of nearby solar type stars.  These two stars are Tau 1 Eridani (an F6 star) and Gliese 86.1 (K2), and are, respectively, just above and below the parameters we arrived at earlier.  One star that should be there (Zeta Tucanae) is missing probably because it is behind Zeta 1 Reticuli at the required viewing angle.
To summarize, then:
  1. The pattern discovered by Marjorie Fish has an uncanny resemblance to the map drawn by Betty Hill
  2. The stars are mostly the ones that we would visit if we were exploring from Zeta Reticuli
  3. The travel patterns generally make sense
Walter Mitchell, professor of astronomy at Ohio State University in Columbus, has looked at Marjorie Fish’s interpretation of the Betty Hill map in detail and tells us,
“The more I examine it, the more I am impressed by the astronomy involved in Marjorie Fish’s work”
During their examination of the map, Mitchell and some of his students inserted the positions of hundreds of nearby stars into a computer and had various space vistas brought up on a cathode ray tube readout.  They requested the computer to put them in a position out beyond Zeta Reticuli looking toward the Sun.  From this viewpoint the map pattern obtained by Marjorie Fish was duplicated with virtually no variations.  Mitchell noted an important and previously unknown fact first pointed out by Ms. Fish:  The stars in the map are almost in a plane; that is, they fill a wheel shaped volume of space that makes star hopping from one to another easy and the logical way to go — and that is what is implied by the map that Betty Hill allegedly saw.
“I can find no major point of quibble with Marjorie Fish’s interpretation of the Betty Hill map,” says David R. Saunders, a statistics expert at the Industrial Relations Center of the University of Chicago.
By various lines of statistical reasoning he concludes that the chances of finding a match among 16 stars of a specific spectral type among the thousand-odd stars nearest the Sun is “at least 1,000 to 1 against.”
“The odds are about 10,000 to 1 against a random configuration matching perfectly with Betty Hill’s map,” Saunders reports.
“But the star group identified by Marjorie Fish isn’t quite a perfect match, and the odds consequently reduce to about 1,000 to 1.  That is, there is one chance in 1,000 that the observed degree of congruence would occur in the volume of space we are discussing.”
“In most fields of investigation where similar statistical methods are used, that degree of congruence is rather persuasive,” concludes Saunders.
Saunders, who has developed a monumental computerized catalog of more than 60,000 UFO sightings, tells us that the Hill case is not unique in its general characteristics — there are other known cases of alleged communication with extraterrestrials.  But in no other case on record have maps ever been mentioned.
Mark Steggert of the Space Research Coordination Center at the University of Pittsburgh developed a computer program that he calls PAR (for Perspective Alteration Routine) that can duplicate the appearance of star fields from various viewpoints in space.
“I was intrigued by the proposal put forth by Marjorie Fish that she had interpreted a real star pattern for the alleged map of Betty Hill.  I was incredulous that models could be used to do an astronometric problem,” Steggert says.
“To my surprise I found that the pattern that I derived from my program had a close correspondence to the data from Marjorie Fish.”
After several run-throughs, he confirmed the positions determined by Marjorie Fish.  “I was able to locate potential areas of error, but no real errors,” Steggert concludes.
Steggert zeroed in on possibly the only real bone of contention that anyone has had with Marjorie Fish’s interpretation:  The data on some of the stars may not be accurate enough for us to make definitive conclusions.  For example, he says the data from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Catalog, the Royal Astronomical Society Observatory Catalog, and the Yale Catalog of Bright Stars,
“have differences of up to two magnitudes and differences in distance amounting to 40 percent for the star Gliese 59.”
Other stars have less variations in the data from one catalog to another, but Steggert’s point is valid.  The data on some of the stars in the map is just not good enough to make a definitive statement (the fact that measurements of most of the stars in question can only be made at the relatively poor equipped southern hemisphere observatories accounts for the less reliable data).
Using information on the same 15 stars from the Royal Observatory catalog (Annals #5), Steggert reports that the pattern does come out differently because of the different data, and Gliese 59 shows the largest variation.  The Gliese catalog uses photometric, trigonometric and spectroscopic parallaxes and derives a mean from all three after giving various mathematical weights to each value.
“The substantial variation in catalog material is something that must be overcome,” says Steggert.  “This must be the next step in attempting to evaluate the map.”
This point of view is shared by Jeffrey L. Kretsch, an undergraduate student who is working under the advisement of J. Allen Hynek at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill.  Like Steggert, he too checked Marjorie Fish’s pattern and found no error in the work.  But Kretsch reports that when he reconstructed the pattern using trigonometric distance measurements instead of the composite measures in the Gliese catalog, he found enough variations to move Gliese 95 above the line between Gliese 86 and Tau 1 Eridani.
“The data for some of the stars seems to be very reliable, but a few of the pattern stars are not well observed and data on them is somewhat conflicting,” says Kretsch.
The fact that the pattern is less of a “good fit” using data from other sources leads Kretsch and others to wonder what new observations would do.  Would they give a closer fit?  Or would the pattern become distorted?  Marjorie Fish was aware of the catalog variations, but has assumed the Gliese catalog is the most reliable source material to utilize.
Is the Gliese catalog the best available data source.  According to several astronomers who specialize in stellar positions, it probably is.  Peter Van de Kamp says, “It’s first rate.  There is none better.”  He says the catalog was compiled with extensive research and care over many years.
A lot of the published trigonometric parallaxes on the stars beyond 30 light-years are not as accurate as they could be, according to Kyle Cudworth of Yerkes Observatory.
 “Gliese added other criteria to compensate and lessen the possible errors,” he says.
The scientific director of the U.S. Naval Observatory, K.A. Strand, is among the world’s foremost authorities on stellar distances for nearby stars.  He believes the Gliese catalog “is the most complete and comprehensive source available.”
Frank B. Salisbury of the University of Utah has also examined the Hill and Fish maps.
“The pattern of stars discovered by Marjorie Fish fits the map drawn by Betty Hill remarkably well.  It’s a striking coincidence and forces one to take the Hill story more seriously,” he says.
Salisbury is one of the few scientists who has spent some time on the UFO problem and has written a book and several articles on the subject.  A professor of plant physiology, his biology expertise has been turned to astronomy on several occasions while studying the possibility of biological organisms existing on Mars.
Salisbury insists that while psychological factors do play an important role in UFO phenomena, the Hill story does represent one of the most credible reports of incredible events.  The fact that the story and the map came to light under hypnosis is good evidence that it actually took place.  “But it is not unequivocal evidence,” he cautions.
Elaborating on this aspect of the incident, Mark Steggert offers this:
“I am inclined to question the ability of Betty, under posthypnotic suggestion, to duplicate the pattern two years after she saw it.  She noted no grid lines on the pattern for reference.  Someone should (or perhaps has already) conduct a test to see how well a similar patter could be recalled after a substantial period of time.  The stress she was under at the time is another unknown factor.”
“The derivation of the base data by hypnotic techniques is perhaps not as “far out” as it may seem,” says Stanton Friedman.  “Several police departments around the country use hypnosis on rape victims in order to get descriptions of the assailants — descriptions that would otherwise remain repressed.  The trauma of such circumstances must be comparable in some ways to the Hill incident.”
Is it at all possible we are faced with a hoax?
“Highly unlikely,” says Salisbury — and the other investigators agree.  One significant fact against a charade is that the data from the Gliese catalog was not published until 1969, five years after the star map was drawn by Betty Hill.  Prior to 1969, the data could only have been obtained from the observatories conducting research on the specific stars in question.  It is not uncommon for astronomers not to divulge their research data — even to their colleagues — before it appears in print.  In general, the entire sequence of events just does not smell of falsification.  Coincidence, possibly; hoax, improbable.
Where does all this leave us?  Are there creatures inhabiting a planet of Zeta 2 Reticuli?  Did they visit Earth in 1961?  The map indicates that the Sun has been “visited occasionally.”  What does that mean?  Will further study and measurement of the stars in the map change their relative positions and thus distort the configuration beyond the limits of coincidence?
The fact that the entire incident hinges on a map drawn under less than normal circumstances certainly keeps us from drawing a firm conclusion.  Exobiologists are united in their opinion that the chance of us having neighbors so similar to us, apparently located so close, is vanishingly small.  But then, we don’t even know for certain if there is anybody at all out there — anywhere — despite the Hill map and pronouncements of the most respected scientists.
The only answer is to continue the search.  Someday, perhaps soon, we will know.
Hypothetical Voyage To Nearby Solar Type Stars
Hypothetical Voyage to Nearby Solar Type Stars